Dependent territory

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A dependent territory, dependent area or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a sovereign state yet remains politically outside the controlling state's integral area.[1]

A dependency is commonly distinguished from country subdivisions by not being considered to be integral territory of the governing state. Administrative subdivisions instead are understood as typically representing a division of the state proper. A dependent territory conversely often maintains a great degree of autonomy from the controlling central state. Historically, most colonies were considered dependencies. Those dependent territories currently remaining generally maintain a very high degree of political autonomy. Not all autonomous entities, though, are considered to be dependencies,[2] and not all dependencies are autonomous. Most inhabited dependent territories have their own ISO 3166 country codes.

Some political entities inhabit a special position guaranteed by international treaty or other agreement: creating a certain level of autonomy (e.g., differences in immigration rules). These are sometimes considered or at least grouped with dependencies,[3][4] but are officially considered by their controlling states to be integral parts of the state.[3] Examples are Åland (Finland) and Hong Kong (China).[5]

Summary

The lists below indicate (or can be interpreted to indicate) the following:

Dependent territories
  • 1 uninhabited territory and 2 dependency claims in the Antarctic listing for Norway;
  • 12 Overseas Territories (10 autonomous, 1 restricted to military personnel and 1 uninhabited), 3 Crown dependencies, 1 group of Sovereign Base Areas and 1 dependency claim in the listing for the United Kingdom;
  • 13 unincorporated territories (5 inhabited, 8 uninhabited), 2 dependency claims and 1 unorganized incorporated territory in the listing for the United States.
Similar entities

Lists of dependent territories

This list includes all territories that have not been legally incorporated into their governing state, including several territories that are not on the list of non-self-governing territories of the General Assembly of the United Nations.[6] Dependency claims without general international recognition, including all claims in Antarctica, are listed in italics.

United Kingdom

Summary: the United Kingdom has 12 Overseas Territories (10 autonomous, 1 restricted to military personnel and 1 uninhabited), 3 Crown dependencies (autonomous), 1 group of Sovereign Base Areas, and 1 dependency claim.

Flag Arms Name Location Motto Area Population Capital
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (HM Government).svg
Akrotiri and Dhekelia Cyprus, Mediterranean Sea 255 km2 (98 sq mi)[7] 7,700 (Cypriots; estimate)
8,000 non-permanent (UK military personnel and their families; estimate)
Episkopi Cantonment
Flag of Anguilla.svg
Coat of arms of Anguilla.svg
Anguilla Caribbean, North Atlantic Ocean "Strength and Endurance" 91 km2 (35.1 sq mi)[8] 13,500 (2006 estimate)[9] The Valley
Flag of Bermuda.svg
Coat of arms of Bermuda.svg
Bermuda North Atlantic Ocean between the Azores, the Caribbean, Cape Sable Island and Canada "Quo fata ferunt" (Latin; "Whither the Fates carry [us]") 54 km2 (20.8 sq mi)[10] 64,000 (2007 estimate)[11] Hamilton
Flag of the British Antarctic Territory.svg
Coat of arms of the British Antarctic Territory.svg
British Antarctic Territory Antarctica "Research and discovery" 1,709,400 km2 (660,000 sq mi)[8] 0
50 non-permanent in winter, over 400 in summer (research personnel)[12]
Rothera (main base)
Flag of the British Indian Ocean Territory.svg
Coat of arms of the British Indian Ocean Territory.svg
British Indian Ocean Territory Indian Ocean "In tutela nostra Limuria" (Latin; "Limuria is in our charge") 60 km2 (23 sq mi)[13] 0
3,000 non-permanent (UK and US military and staff personnel; estimate)[14]
Diego Garcia (base)
Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg
Coat of arms of the British Virgin Islands.svg
British Virgin Islands Caribbean, North Atlantic Ocean "Vigilate" (Latin; "Be watchful") 153 km2 (59 sq mi)[15] 27,000 (2005 estimate)[15] Road Town
Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg
Coat of arms of the Cayman Islands.svg
Cayman Islands Caribbean "He hath founded it upon the seas" 264 km2 (101.9 sq mi)[16] 64,420 (2018 estimate)[16] George Town
Flag of the Falkland Islands.svg
Coat of arms of the Falkland Islands.svg
Falkland Islands South Atlantic Ocean "Desire the right" 12,173 km2 (4,700 sq mi)[10] 2,955 (2006 census)[17]
1,350 non-permanent (UK military personnel; 2012 estimate)
Stanley
Flag of Gibraltar.svg
Coat of arms of Gibraltar1.svg
Gibraltar Iberian Peninsula, Continental Europe "Nulli expugnabilis hosti" (Latin; "No enemy shall expel us") 6.5 km2 (2.5 sq mi)[18] 28,800 (2005 estimate)[19]
1,250 non-permanent (UK military personnel; 2012 estimate)
Gibraltar
Flag of Montserrat.svg
Coat of arms of Montserrat.svg
Montserrat Caribbean, North Atlantic Ocean "A people of excellence, moulded by nature, nurtured by God" 101 km2 (39 sq mi)[20] 4,655 (2006 estimate)[20] Plymouth (abandoned due to volcano—de facto capital is Brades)
Flag of the Pitcairn Islands.svg
Coat of arms of the Pitcairn Islands.svg
Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands Pacific Ocean 47 km2 (18 sq mi)[21] 49 (2014 estimate)[22]
6 non-permanent (2014 estimate)[23]
Adamstown
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha,
including:
South Atlantic Ocean 420 km2 (162 sq mi) 5,530 (total; estimate) Jamestown
Flag of Saint Helena.svg
Coat of arms of Saint Helena.svg
Saint Helena "Loyal and Unshakeable" (Saint Helena) 4,255 (Saint Helena; 2008 census)[24]
Flag of Ascension Island.svg
Coat of Arms of Ascension Island.svg
Ascension Island 880 (Ascension; estimate)[25]
1,000 non-permanent (Ascension; UK military personnel; estimate)[25]
Flag of Tristan da Cunha.svg
Coat of arms of Tristan da Cunha.svg
Tristan da Cunha "Our faith is our strength" (Tristan da Cunha) 300 (Tristan da Cunha; estimate)[25]
9 non-permanent (Tristan da Cunha; weather personnel)
Flag of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.svg
Coat of arms of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.svg
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Atlantic Ocean "Leo terram propriam protegat" (Latin; "Let the lion protect his own land") 4,066 km2 (1,570 sq mi)[26] 0
99 non-permanent (officials and research personnel)[27]
King Edward Point
Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg
Turks and Caicos Islands Lucayan Archipelago, North Atlantic Ocean 430 km2 (166 sq mi)[28] 32,000 (2006 census)[28] Cockburn Town
Bailiwick of
Guernsey
Flag of Guernsey.svg
Guernsey
Coat of arms of Guernsey.svg
English Channel 78 km2 (30 sq mi) 65,849 Saint Peter Port
(capital of the whole Bailiwick
and of Guernsey also)
Flag of Herm.svg
Herm
Blason Ile Herm 2.svg
(none)
Flag of Alderney.svg
Alderney
Blason Aurigny.svg
Saint Anne
Flag of Sark.svg
Sark
Coat of arms of Sark.svg
The Seigneurie (de facto;
Sark does not have a capital city)
Flag of Brecqhou.GIF
Brecqhou
(none)
Bailiwick
of Jersey
Flag of Jersey.svg
Jersey coa.svg
118.2 km2 (46 sq mi) 100,080 Saint Helier
Isle of Man Flag of the Isle of Mann.svg
Coat of arms of the Isle of Man.svg
Irish Sea "Quocunque Jeceris Stabit" (Latin;

"Whithersoever you throw it, it will stand")

572 km2 (221 sq mi) 84,997 Douglas
Overall 1,728,358 km2 c. 500,926

France

Summary: France has overseas 6 autonomous collectivities and 2 uninhabited territories (one of which includes an Antarctic dependency claim). This does not include its “standard” overseas regions (which are also overseas departments) of Réunion, Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, and Mayotte—although also located overseas, they have the same status as metropolitan France's regions. Nonetheless, all of France's overseas territory is considered an integral part of the French Republic.

Flag[note 1] Name Capital Population Land area
(km2)
Population density
(inh. per km2)
Status Location Notes
Flag of French Guiana.svg French Guiana Cayenne 281,612
(Jan. 2018)[29]
83,534[30] 3 Overseas department / region South America
French Polynesia French Polynesia Papeete 275,918
(Aug. 2017)[31]
3,521[32] 78 Overseas collectivity South Pacific Ocean
Unofficial flag of Guadeloupe (local).svg Guadeloupe Basse-Terre 390,704
(Jan. 2018)[29]
1,628[30] 240 Overseas department / region Antilles
Snake Flag of Martinique.svg Martinique Fort-de-France 371,246
(Jan. 2018)[29]
1,128[30] 329 Overseas department / region Antilles
Flag of Mayotte (local).svg Mayotte Mamoudzou 259,154
(Jan. 2018)[29]
374[32] 693 Overseas department / region Africa
(Mozambique Channel)
Voted on March 29, 2009 in favour of attaining overseas department / region status. That status became effective on March 31, 2011.
Also claimed by Comoros
Flags of New Caledonia.svg New Caledonia Nouméa 278,500
(Jan. 2017)[33]
18,575.5[34] 15 Sui generis collectivity South Pacific Ocean Referendum for independence occurred on November 4, 2018 with 56.4% voting against and 43.6% voting in favor of independence from France.
Proposed flag of Réunion (VAR).svg Réunion Saint-Denis 865,826
(Jan. 2018)[29]
2,504[30] 346 Overseas department / region Africa
(Indian Ocean)
Flag of Saint Barthelemy (local).svg Saint Barthélemy Gustavia 9,625
(Jan. 2015)[35]
25[36] 385 Overseas collectivity Antilles Detached from Guadeloupe on February 22, 2007.
Collectivity of Saint Martin Saint Martin Marigot 35,684
(Jan. 2015)[35]
53[37] 673 Overseas collectivity Antilles Detached from Guadeloupe on February 22, 2007.
Flag of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.svg Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint-Pierre 6,021
(Jan. 2015)[35]
242[32] 25 Overseas collectivity Southeast of Canada
Flag of Wallis and Futuna.svg Wallis and Futuna Mata-Utu 12,197
(Jul. 2013)[38]
142[32] 86 Overseas collectivity South Pacific Ocean
France Clipperton 2[39] French state private property West of Mexico
French Southern and Antarctic Lands French Southern and Antarctic Lands Crozet Islands 340[40] TAAF district South Indian Ocean
Kerguelen Islands 7,215[40] TAAF district South Indian Ocean population: 45 researchers in winter, 110 in summer
Saint-Paul Island and
Amsterdam Island
66[40] TAAF district Indian Ocean
Adélie Land 432,000[40] TAAF district Antarctica Under terms of Antarctic Treaty System
Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean Banc du Geyser 0 TAAF district Africa
(Mozambique Channel)
Claimed by Madagascar and Comoros
Bassas da India 1[40] Africa
(Mozambique Channel)
Claimed by Madagascar
Europa 30[40] Africa
(Mozambique Channel)
Claimed by Madagascar
Glorioso Islands 7[40] Indian Ocean Claimed by Comoros and Madagascar
Juan de Nova 5[40] Africa
(Mozambique Channel)
Claimed by Madagascar
Tromelin Island 1[40] Indian Ocean Claimed by Mauritius
  1. ^ Article 2 of the French Constitution states that the French flag is the only legal flag of France. Only French Polynesia, a collectivity, and New Caledonia, a special collectivity are allowed official flags. This right was granted to French Polynesia by a 6 September 1984, law and to New Caledonia by the Nouméa Accord. The Administrator of French Antarctica is also granted his own flag through a 23 February 2007 ordinance. Historical flags are sometimes used but have no basis in law. Many territories use unofficial flags to represent the territories. The unofficial flags are shown in this table.

United States

Summary: the United States insular areas comprise 3 freely associated sovereign states (with Compacts of Free Association), 13 dependent territories and 2 dependency claims, and 1 incorporated territory.

States in free association Administration ISO 3166 country codes
 Federated States of Micronesia Freely associated sovereign state for which U.S. has national defense authority and Office of Insular Affairs manages funding, access to domestic U.S. social services and other programmes as per mutually negotiated Compact of Free Association. FM-
 Marshall Islands MH-
 Palau PW-
Unincorporated organized territories
(inhabited)
Administration ISO 3166 country codes
 Guam Unincorporated organized territory of the U.S.; policy relations conducted through Office of Insular Affairs, Department of the Interior. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. US-GU or

GU

 Northern Mariana Islands Commonwealth in political union with the U.S.; federal funding administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, Department of the Interior. US-MP or

MP

 Puerto Rico Unincorporated organized territory of the U.S. with commonwealth status; policy relations conducted through Office of the President. US-PR or

PR

 U.S. Virgin Islands Unincorporated organized territory of the U.S.; policy relations conducted by the Office of Insular Affairs, Department of the Interior. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. US-VI or

VI

Unincorporated unorganized territories
(inhabited)
Administration ISO 3166 country codes
 American Samoa Unincorporated unorganized territory administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. US-AS or

AS

 Midway Atoll Unincorporated unorganized territory of the U.S. administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior. No permanent population. US-UM-71 or

UM-71

 Wake Island Unincorporated unorganized territory of the U.S. administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior. Claimed by the Marshall Islands. No permanent population. US-UM-79 or

UM-79

Unincorporated unorganized territories
(uninhabited)
Administration ISO 3166 country codes
 Baker Island Unincorporated unorganized territories of the U.S. administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior. US-UM-81 or

UM-81

 Howland Island US-UM-84 or

UM-84

 Jarvis Island US-UM-86 or

UM-86

 Johnston Atoll US-UM-67 or

UM-67

 Kingman Reef US-UM-89 or

UM-89

 Navassa Island Unincorporated unorganized territory of the U.S. administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior from the Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge in Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Claimed by Haiti and privately via the Guano Islands Act. US-UM-76 or

UM-76

Bajo Nuevo Bank Administered by Colombia. Claimed by the U.S. (under Guano Islands Act) and Jamaica. A claim by Nicaragua was resolved in 2012 in favor of Colombia by the International Court of Justice (U.S. not a party nor recognizes Court's jurisdiction). within CO-SAP
Serranilla Bank Administered by Colombia; site of a naval garrison. Claimed by the U.S. (since 1879 under Guano Islands Act), Honduras, and Jamaica. A claim by Nicaragua was resolved in 2012 in favor of Colombia by the International Court of Justice (U.S. not a party nor recognizes Court's jurisdiction).
Incorporated unorganized territory
(uninhabited)
Administration ISO 3166 country codes
 Palmyra Atoll Incorporated unorganized territory of the U.S. administered by the U.S. federal government. US-UM-95

New Zealand

Summary: The Realm of New Zealand includes two self-governing states in free association with New Zealand, one territory (Tokelau), and a territorial claim in Antarctica.

In free association Administration ISO 3166 country codes
 Cook Islands Self-governing state in free association with New Zealand since 1965. Cook Islands' status is considered to be equivalent to independence for international law purposes, and the country exercises full sovereignty over its internal and external affairs.[41] Under the terms of the free association agreement, however, New Zealand retains some responsibility for the foreign relations and defence of the Cook Islands. These responsibilities confer no rights of control and are exercised only at the request of the Cook Islands Government. The government of New Zealand does not consider the Cook Islands to be sovereign due to its continued use of New Zealand citizenship.[42] CK-
 Niue Self-governing state in free association with New Zealand since 1974. Niue's status is considered to be equivalent to independence for international law purposes, and the country exercises full sovereignty over its internal and external affairs.[41] Under the terms of the free association agreement, however, New Zealand retains some responsibility for the foreign relations and defence of Niue. These responsibilities confer no rights of control and are exercised only at the request of the Government of Niue. The government of New Zealand does not consider Niue to be sovereign due to its continued use of New Zealand citizenship.[42] NU-
Territory Administration ISO 3166 country codes
 Tokelau Territory of New Zealand. As it moves toward free association with New Zealand, Tokelau and New Zealand have agreed to a draft constitution. A UN-sponsored referendum on self-governance in February 2006 did not produce the two-thirds supermajority necessary for changing the current political status. Another one was in October 2007, which failed to reach the ​23 margin. TK-
 Ross Dependency No permanent population. New Zealand's Antarctic claim. Unlike Tokelau and the associated states (Cook Islands and Niue), it is constitutionally part of New Zealand.[43] within AQ

Norway

Summary: Norway has 1 dependent territory and 2 dependency claims.

Dependency Administration ISO 3166 country codes
 Bouvet Island No permanent population. Dependency administered from Oslo by the Polar Affairs Department of the Ministry of Justice and the Police. BV-
 Peter I Island No permanent population. Dependencies (subject to the Antarctic Treaty System) administered from Oslo by the Polar Affairs Department of the Ministry of Justice and the Police. within AQ
 Queen Maud Land

Lists of similar entities

The following entities are according to the law of their state, integral parts of the state, but exhibit many characteristics of dependent territories. This list is generally limited to entities which are either subject to an international treaty on their status, uninhabited, or have a unique level of autonomy and are largely self-governing in matters other than international affairs. As a result, it does not include most entities with no unique autonomy, such as the overseas regions of France, the Home Nations of the United Kingdom, or Alaska and Hawaii, or only limited unique autonomy, such as the Autonomous Regions of Portugal, autonomous communities of Spain, or Zanzibar. Dependency claims without general international recognition, including all claims in Antarctica, are listed in italics.

Australia

Summary: Australia has 6 territories in its administration and 1 dependency claim.

Although all territories of Australia are considered to be fully integrated in its federative system, and the official status of an external territory does not differ largely from that of a mainland territory (except in regards to immigration law), debate remains as to whether the external territories are integral parts of Australia, due to their not being part of Australia in 1901, when its constituent states federated (with the exception of Coral Sea Islands which was part of Queensland).[44] They are often listed separately for statistical purposes.

External territories (inhabited) Administration ISO 3166 country codes
 Christmas Island Administered from Canberra by the Attorney-General's Department.[45][46] CX-
 Cocos (Keeling) Islands CC-
 Norfolk Island Commonwealth responsibilities administered from Canberra through the Attorney-General's Department.[45] NF-
External territories (uninhabited) Administration ISO 3166 country codes
 Ashmore and Cartier Islands Administered from Canberra by the Attorney-General's Department.[45] within AU[-ACT?]
 Coral Sea Islands[47]
 Australian Antarctic Territory Administered from Canberra by the Australian Antarctic Division of the Department of the Environment. within AQ
 Heard Island and McDonald Islands HM-

China

Summary: China has two special administrative regions (SARs) that are governed according to international treaties. The SARs greatly differ from mainland China in administrative, economic, legislative and judicial terms, including by currency, left- versus right-hand traffic, official languages and immigration control.

Special Administrative Regions Administration ISO 3166 country codes
 Hong Kong Former British colony. Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China since 1997 pursuant to the Sino-British Joint Declaration, an international treaty registered with the United Nations. The Hong Kong Basic Law provides for the territory to enjoy a high degree of autonomy in accordance with the “one country, two systems” model under the central government of China. Although the territory is not part of Mainland China, it is officially considered an integral part of the People's Republic of China.[48][49][50] CN-HK or

HK-

 Macau Former Portuguese colony. Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China since 1999 pursuant to the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration, an international treaty registered with the United Nations. The Macau Basic Law provides for the territory to enjoy a high degree of autonomy in accordance with the “one country, two systems” model under the central government of China. Although the territory is not part of Mainland China, it is officially considered an integral part of the People's Republic of China. CN-MO or

MO-

Denmark

The Kingdom of Denmark contains 2 self-governing countries.

Constituent country Administration ISO 3166 country codes
 Faroe Islands Self-governing overseas administrative division since 1948. Part of Denmark, but not of the European Union. FO-
 Greenland Self-governing overseas administrative division since 1979. Part of Denmark. Withdrew from the European Economic Community in 1985. GL-

Finland

Summary: Finland has 1 autonomous region, which is also subject to international treaties.

Division Administration ISO 3166 country codes
 Åland Islands The Åland Islands are governed according to the Act on the Autonomy of Åland and international treaties. These laws guarantee the islands' autonomy in Finland, which has ultimate sovereignty over them, as well as a demilitarized status. AX- or

FI-01

Netherlands

Summary: The Kingdom of the Netherlands (“Kingdom”) comprises 3 Caribbean countries with autonomy in internal affairs (listed below) and one country (the Netherlands) with most of its area in Europe but for 3 Caribbean municipalities. The 3 municipalities in the Caribbean—Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius—are not listed because they are directly administered by the Government of the Netherlands.[51] All Kingdom citizens share the same nationality and are thus citizens of the European Union.

Country Administration ISO 3166 country codes
 Aruba Defined as a “country” (“land”) within the Kingdom by the Statute of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Aruba obtained full autonomy in internal affairs upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986. Part of the Kingdom but not in Europe, its citizenship nonetheless includes status as Citizens of the European Union. (The Kingdom government coincides almost exactly with the Government of the Netherlands, and is responsible for defence, foreign affairs and nationality law.) NL-AW- or

AW-

 Curaçao Defined as a “country” (“land”) within the Kingdom by the Statute of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Curaçao and Sint Maarten were part of the Netherlands Antilles until it was dissolved in October 2010. Part of the Kingdom but not in Europe, their citizenship nonetheless includes status as Citizens of the European Union. (The Kingdom government coincides almost exactly with the Government of the Netherlands, and is responsible for defence, foreign affairs and nationality law.) NL-CW- or

CW-

 Sint Maarten NL-SX- or

SX-

Norway

Summary: Norway has, in the Arctic, one uninhabited island (Jan Mayen) and one inhabited archipelago whose Norwegian sovereignty is limited—Svalbard. Unlike the country's Antarctic dependent territory (Bouvet Island) and dependency claims (see above), both are part of the Kingdom of Norway.

Division Administration ISO 3166 country codes
 Svalbard This Arctic archipelago is the northernmost permanent civilian settlement in the world. Not incorporated into any county, it is administered by a governor appointed by the Norwegian government. Since 2002, main settlement Longyearbyen has elected a local government; other settlements include the Russian mining community of Barentsburg, the research station of Ny-Ålesund, and the mining outpost of Sveagruva. The Svalbard Treaty of 1920 recognizes Norwegian sovereignty (since 1925 a full part of the Kingdom of Norway) but established Svalbard as a free economic zone and a demilitarized zone. SJ or
 Jan Mayen Situated southwest of Svalbard, Jan Mayen is a remote uninhabited volcanic Arctic island. An integral part of the Kingdom of Norway, Jan Mayen is administered by the County Governor (fylkesmann) of the northern Norwegian county of Nordland. However, some authority is assigned to the Norwegian Defence Logistics Organisation station commander.

Description

Three Crown dependencies are in a form of association with the U.K. They are independently administrated jurisdictions, although the British Government is solely responsible for defence and international representation and has ultimate responsibility for ensuring good government. They do not have diplomatic recognition as independent states, but neither are they integrated into the U.K. (nor the European Union). The U.K. Parliament retains the ability to legislate for the Crown dependencies even without agreement of their legislatures. No Crown dependency has representation in the U.K. Parliament.

Although British Overseas Territories, Bermuda and Gibraltar have similar relationships to the U.K. as the Crown dependencies. While Britain is officially responsible for defence and international representation, these jurisdictions maintain their own militaries and have been granted limited diplomatic powers, in addition to having internal self-government.

New Zealand and its dependencies share the same Governor-General and constitute one monarchic realm. The Cook Islands and Niue are officially termed associated states.

Puerto Rico (since 1952) and the Northern Mariana Islands (since 1986) are non-independent states freely associated with the United States. The mutually negotiated Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) in Political Union with the United States was approved in 1976. The Covenant was fully implemented November 3, 1986, pursuant to Presidential Proclamation no. 5564, which conferred United States citizenship on legally qualified CNMI residents.[52] Under the Constitution of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico is described as a Commonwealth and Puerto Ricans have a degree of administrative autonomy similar to citizens of a U.S. state. Puerto Ricans "were collectively made U.S. citizens" in 1917 as a result of the Jones-Shafroth Act.[53][54] The commonly used name in Spanish of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, literally "Associated Free State of Puerto Rico", which sounds similar to "free association" particularly when loosely used in Spanish, is sometimes erroneously interpreted to mean that Puerto Rico's relationship with United States is based on a Compact of Free Association and at other times erroneously held to mean that Puerto Rico's relationship with United States is based on an Interstate compact. This is a constant source of ambiguity and confusion when trying to define, understand and explain Puerto Rico's political relationship with the United States. For various reasons Puerto Rico's political status differs from that of the Pacific Islands that entered into Compacts of Free Association with the United States. As sovereign states, these islands have full right to conduct their own foreign relations, while the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico has territorial status subject to United States congressional authority under the Constitution's Territory Clause, "to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory… belonging to the United States.".[55] Puerto Rico does not have the right to unilaterally declare independence, and at the last referendum (1998) the narrow majority voted for "none of the above", which was a formally undefined alternative used by commonwealth supporters to express their desire for an "enhanced commonwealth" option.[55]

This kind of relationship also can be found in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which is termed a federacy. The European continental part is organized like a unitary state; however, the status of its Caribbean countries (Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten) can be considered dependencies or “associated non-independent states.”

The Kingdom of Denmark also operates in a similar manner: another federacy. The Faroes and Greenland are two self-governing territories or regions within the Kingdom. The relationship between Denmark proper and these two territories is semi-officially termed the Rigsfællesskabet (“Unity of the Realm”).

Overview of dependent territories and similar entities

Name Population (2016)[56] Area[57] Continent Sovereign state Legal status[58]
 Akrotiri and Dhekelia 15,700 254 km² (98 sq mi) Europe  United Kingdom Overseas territory
 Åland Islands 29,013 1,580 km² (610 sq mi) Europe  Finland Autonomous region
 American Samoa 54,194 199 km² (77 sq mi) Oceania  United States Unincorporated territory
 Anguilla 15,100 91 km² (35 sq mi) North America  United Kingdom Overseas territory
 Aruba 113,648 178.91 km² (69.08 sq mi) North America  Netherlands Constituent country
 Bermuda 70,537 53.2 km² (20.5 sq mi) North America  United Kingdom Overseas territory
 British Virgin Islands 34,232 153 km² (59 sq mi) North America  United Kingdom Overseas territory
 Cayman Islands 57,268 264 km² (101.9 sq mi) North America  United Kingdom Overseas territory
 Christmas Island 2,205 135 km² (52 sq mi) Asia  Australia External territory
 Cocos (Keeling) Islands 596 14 km² (5.4 sq mi) Asia  Australia External territory
 Cook Islands 18,100 240 km² (93 sq mi) Oceania  New Zealand Free association
 Curaçao 158,986 444 km² (171 sq mi) North America  Netherlands Constituent country
 Falkland Islands 2,931 12,173 km² (4,700 sq mi) South America  United Kingdom Overseas territory
 Faroe Islands 49,188 4,167 km² (540 sq mi) Europe  Denmark Constituent country
 French Polynesia 285,735 1,399 km² (1,609 sq mi) Oceania  France Overseas country
 Gibraltar 29,328 6.5 km² (2.5 sq mi) Europe  United Kingdom Overseas territory
 Greenland 56,483 2,166,086 km² (836,330 sq mi) North America  Denmark Constituent country
 Guam 162,742 210 km² (540 sq mi) Oceania  United States Unincorporated territory
 Guernsey 63,026 65 km² (25 sq mi) Europe  United Kingdom Crown dependency
 Hong Kong 7,374,000 2,755 km² (1,064 sq mi) Asia  China Special administrative region
 Isle of Man 88,195 572 km² (221 sq mi) Europe  United Kingdom Crown dependency
 Jan Mayen 377 km2 Arctic  Norway Unincorporated internal area
 Jersey 98,069 118.2 km² (45.6 sq mi) Europe  United Kingdom Crown dependency
 Macau 650,900 115.3 km² (44.5 sq mi) Asia  China Special administrative region
 Montserrat 5,267 101 km² (39 sq mi) North America  United Kingdom Overseas territory
 New Caledonia 275,355 18,576 km² (7,172 sq mi) Oceania  France Sui generis collectivity
 Niue 1,190 261.46 km² (100.95 sq mi) Oceania  New Zealand Free association
 Norfolk Island 2,210 34.6 km² (13.4 sq mi) Oceania  Australia External territory
 Northern Mariana Islands 53,467 464 km² (179 sq mi) Oceania  United States Commonwealth
 Pitcairn Islands 57 43 km² (17 sq mi) Oceania  United Kingdom Overseas territory
 Puerto Rico 3,411,307 9,104 km² (3,515 sq mi) North America  United States Commonwealth
 Saint Barthélemy 7,209 25 km² (9.7 sq mi) North America  France Overseas collectivity
 Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 5,633 394 km² (152 sq mi) Africa  United Kingdom Overseas territory
 Saint Martin 31,949 53.2 km² (20.5 sq mi) North America  France Overseas collectivity
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 5,595 242 km² (93 sq mi) North America  France Overseas collectivity
 Sint Maarten 41,486 37 km² (14 sq mi) North America  Netherlands Constituent country
 Svalbard 2,667 61,022 km² (23,561 sq mi) Europe  Norway Division
 Tokelau 1,499 10 km² (3.9 sq mi) Oceania  New Zealand Free association
 Turks and Caicos Islands 51,430 430 km² (166 sq mi) North America  United Kingdom Overseas territory
 United States Virgin Islands 102,951 346.36 km² (133.73 sq mi) North America  United States Unincorporated territory
 Wallis and Futuna 15,664 142 km² (55 sq mi) Oceania  France Overseas collectivity

See also

Notes and references

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.

  1. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1514
  2. ^ "United Nations Trusteeship Council".
  3. ^ a b United Nations General Assembly 15th Session – The Trusteeship System and Non-Self-Governing Territories (pages:509–510) Archived March 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Listaba.com[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ The World Factbook. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  6. ^ For the list, see Special Committee on Decolonization (2002). "Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories". United Nations, Special Committee on Decolonization. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
  7. ^ "SBA Cyprus". Jncc.gov.uk. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
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  9. ^ "Commonwealth Secretariat – Anguilla". Thecommonwealth.org. Archived from the original on 17 December 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  10. ^ a b "UNdata | record view | Surface area in km2". United Nations. 4 November 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
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  12. ^ "Commonwealth Secretariat – British Antarctic Territory". Thecommonwealth.org. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
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  14. ^ "Commonwealth Secretariat – British Indian Ocean Territory". Thecommonwealth.org. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  15. ^ a b "British Virgin Islands (BVI)". Jncc.gov.uk. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  16. ^ a b "Economics and Statistics Office - Labour Force Survey Report Spring 2018" (PDF). www.eso.ky. Cayman Islands Economics and Statistics Office. August 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
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  18. ^ "Gibraltar". Jncc.gov.uk. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  19. ^ "Commonwealth Secretariat – Gibraltar". Thecommonwealth.org. 7 November 2002. Archived from the original on 6 March 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  20. ^ a b "Montserrat". Jncc.gov.uk. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
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  22. ^ Rob Solomon and Kirsty Burnett (January 2014) Pitcairn Island Economic Review. government.pn. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
  23. ^ "Pitcairn Residents". puc.edu. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
  24. ^ "UN Statistics – St Helena census 2008" (PDF). United Nations. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 June 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  25. ^ a b c "St Helena, Ascension, Tristan da Cunha profiles". BBC. 16 March 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
  26. ^ Vital Statistics – SOUTH GEORGIA AND THE SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS. 22 January 1993. CIA WORLD FACTBOOK 1992 via the Libraries of the Univ. of Missouri-St. Louis.
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  28. ^ a b "Turks and Caicos Islands". Jncc.gov.uk. 1 November 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  29. ^ a b c d e INSEE. "Estimation de population par région, sexe et grande classe d'âge - Années 1975 à 2018" (in French). Retrieved 2018-02-16.
  30. ^ a b c d INSEE. "Base chiffres clés : évolution et structure de la population 2010" (in French). Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  31. ^ "La population légale au 17 août 2017 : 275 918 habitants". ISPF. Retrieved 2018-02-16.
  32. ^ a b c d INSEE. "Tableau Économique de Mayotte 2010" (PDF) (in French). p. 21. Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  33. ^ ISEE. "Bilan démographique 2016" (in French). Retrieved 2018-02-16.
  34. ^ ISEE. "Tableaux de l'Economie Calédonienne : Population, superficie et densité par commune et province en 2009" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  35. ^ a b c INSEE, Government of France. "Populations légales 2015 des départements et collectivités d'outre-mer" (in French). Retrieved 2018-02-16.
  36. ^ INSEE. "Actualités : 2008, An 1 de la collectivité de Saint-Barthélemy" (in French). Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  37. ^ INSEE. "Actualités : 2008, An 1 de la collectivité de Saint-Martin" (in French). Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  38. ^ STSEE. "Populations légales au recensement de la population 2013 de Wallis et Futuna" (in French). Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  39. ^ Ministry of Overseas France. "L'île de Clipperton" (in French). Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i Délégation générale à l'outre-mer. "Terres Australes et Antarctiques Françaises : Données géographiques et humaines" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  41. ^ a b http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/publications-archived/2000/pacific-peoples-constitution-report-september-2000/documents/Bibliography.doc
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  44. ^ Carney, Gerard (2006). The constitutional systems of the Australian states and territories. Canberra: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-86305-6.
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  47. ^ Willis Island is permanently manned by a small team of meteorologists.
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  53. ^ The Louisiana Purchase and American Expansion: 1803–1898. By Sanford Levinson and Bartholomew H. Sparrow. New York: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. 2005. Page 166, 178. "U.S. citizenship was extended to residents of Puerto Rico by virtue of the Jones Act, chap. 190, 39 Stat. 951 (1971) (codified at 48 U.S.C. § 731 (1987)")
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Bibliography

  • George Drower, Britain's Dependent Territories, Dartmouth, 1992
  • George Drower, Overseas Territories Handbook, TSO, 1998

External links

  • World Statesmen – Index of Possessions and Colonies (includes former dependent states)
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