Emperor of Mexico

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Emperor of Mexico
Imperial Monogram of Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico.svg
Imperial Monogram of Maximilian I
Style His Imperial Majesty
First monarch Agustín I
Last monarch Maximilian I
Formation 19 May 1822
Abolition 15 May 1867
Residence Palace of Moncada (1822-1823)
Chapultepec Castle (1864-1867)
Appointer Hereditary
Pretender(s) Iturbide House: Prince Maximilian de Götzen-Iturbide
Habsburg-Lorraine Branch: Archduke Carlos Felipe de Habsburgo-Lorena y Arenberg

The Emperor of Mexico (Spanish: Emperador de México) was the head of state and ruler of Mexico on two non-consecutive occasions in the 19th century.

With the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire from Spain in 1821, Mexico became an independent monarchy—the First Mexican Empire (1822–1823). Mexico briefly reverted into a monarchy in the 1860s, during the Second Mexican Empire (1864–1867). In both instances of Empire, the reigning Emperor was forcibly deposed and then executed.

First Mexican Empire (1821–1823)

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image
Agustín I (1783-09-27)27 September 1783 – 19 July 1824(1824-07-19) (aged 40) 19 May 1822 19 March 1823 Iturbide Agustín I of Mexico


The Sovereign Mexican Constituent Congress decreed on June 22, 1822[1] the following:

  • Art 1 °. The Mexican Monarchy, in addition to being moderate and Constitutional, is also hereditary.
  • Art 2 °. Consequently, the Nation calls the succession of the Crown for the death of the current Emperor, his firstborn son Don Agustín Jerónimo de Iturbide. The Constitution of the Empire will decide the order of succession of the throne.
  • Art 3 °. The crown prince will be called "Prince Imperial" and will have the treatment of Imperial Highness.
  • Art 4 °. The legitimate sons and daughters of H.I.M will be called "Mexican Princes", and will have the treatment of Highness.
  • Art 5 °. Don José Joaquín de Iturbide y Arreguí, Father of H.I.M, is decorated with the title of "Prince of the Union" and the treatment of Highness, during his life.
  • Art 6 °. It is also granted the title of "Princess of Iturbide" and the treatment of Highness, during his life, to Doña María Nicolasa de Iturbide y Arámburo, sister of the Emperor.

Second Mexican Empire (1863–1867)

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image
Maximilian I (1832-07-06)6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867(1867-06-19) (aged 34) 10 April 1864 15 May 1867 Habsburg-Lorraine Maximilian I of Mexico


The Superior Government Junta by the Conservative Party decreed on July 11 of 1863[2] the following:

  • Art 1 °. The Mexican nation adopts a moderated, hereditary monarchy by way of government, with a Catholic prince.
  • Art 2 °. The sovereign will take the title of Emperor of Mexico.
  • Art 3 °. The imperial crown of Mexico is offered to S. A. and R., Prince Maximilian, archduke of Austria, for himself and his descendants.
  • Art 4 °. In the event that, due to circumstances impossible to foresee, Archduke Maximilian did not take possession of the throne that is offered, the Mexican nation refers to the benevolence of HM Napoleon III, emperor of the French, to be instructed by another Catholic prince .

See also


  1. ^ Digital UANL Studies of the General History of Mexico. VOLUME V[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ ITAM Library Studies
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