Help:IPA/Slovene

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Slovene language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-sl}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Slovene phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Slovene.

Consonants
IPA Examples nearest English equivalent
b bob bob
d dan done
dz brivec brije[1] heads
ez George
f film film
ɡ gora gore
ɣ vrh drevesa[1] Spanish rasgo
j jaz[2] yaw
k kolo cola
l luka[2] Luke
m morje, Istanbul[3] more
ɱ simfonija, informacija[3] comfort
n ne[3][2] no
ŋ banka[3] bank
p pet pet
ɾ robot batter (American English)
s stol stole
ʃ šum shell
t ti tattoo
ts car shorts
čaj church
v filozof Dolar[1] van
ʋ voda
w cerkev[4] we
x harfa (Scottish) loch
z zima zoo
ʒ žaba fusion
Combinations of vowels and tone[5]
Low tone (or "rising") vowels
IPA Stress
orth.
Tonal
orth.[6][7]
Examples nearest English equivalent
àː á danes father
ɛ̀ː ê é zemlja British square
èː é ẹ́ cerkev late
ə̀ è ə̀ sem (stressed) about
ə̀ɾ ŕ vrba US: verb (trilled)
ìː í hiša least
ɔ̀ː ô ó poten dog
òː ó ọ́ erotičen story
ùː ú truplo scoop
High tone (or "falling") vowels
á à ȁ brat strut
áː á ȃ grad father
ɛ́ è ȅ met let
ɛ́ː ê ȇ adverb British square
éː é ẹ̑ kreda late
ə́ è ə̏ pes about
ə́ɾ ŕ ȓ tržnica US: verb (trilled)
í ì ȉ bik list
íː í ȋ list least
ɔ́ ò ȍ on off
ɔ́ː ô ȏ alkova dog
óː ó ọ̑ pot story
ú ù ȕ kruh foot
úː ú ȗ romunščina scoop
ý ǜ ü̏ Türk[8] Somewhat like cute
Unstressed vowels
a a žena father (shorter)
ɛ e e medved let
ə ə danes about
əɾ er, r ər, r koder, potrditi US: verb (trilled)
i i biti list
ɔ o potok lot
u u mamut foot
Stress[7]
IPA Stress
orth.
Tonal
orth.
Example Explanation
ˈ N/A [ˈsə̀m] Primary stress

Notes

  1. ^ a b c [dz, ɣ, v] are allophones of /ts, x, f/ that occur before voiced consonants (Herrity (2000:16)).
  2. ^ a b c Orthographic sequences ⟨lj, nj, rj⟩ are pronounced /lj, nj, rj/ only if a vowel follows; otherwise, the /j/ is not pronounced. For ⟨rj⟩, it is reflected in the orthography, but for ⟨lj, nj⟩ it is not.
  3. ^ a b c d Nasals always assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Before velar consonants they are [ŋ], and before labial consonants they are [m]; the labiodental [ɱ] appears before /f/ and /ʋ/. Orthographic ⟨n⟩ before ⟨p⟩ and ⟨b⟩ is rare and is confined mostly to loanwords.
  4. ^ In Standard Slovene, [w] is an allophone of /v/ (also /l/ in some cases) before consonants and pauses (Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999:136)).
  5. ^ Some scholars have found that vowel length in Standard Slovene is no longer distinctive, (Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999:136), Tatjana Srebot-Rejec. "On the vowel system in present-day Slovene" (PDF)., Srebot-Rejec (1988)) and the only differences in vowel length are that the stressed vowels are longer than the unstressed ones,(Tatjana Srebot-Rejec. "On the vowel system in present-day Slovene" (PDF)., Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999:137)) with stressed open syllables longer than stressed closed syllables (Tatjana Srebot-Rejec. "On the vowel system in present-day Slovene" (PDF).).
  6. ^ Tonic marks are not part of the orthography but are found in dictionaries such as "Slovenski pravopis 2001". Tone marks can also be found on ⟨r⟩, which signifies the sequence /ər/.
  7. ^ a b Wherever possible, one should transcribe Slovene with both tonic and stress marks. If the correct tones are unknown, it is acceptable to put only a stress-based transcription.[this is clearly not the current practice as there are only a few transcriptions that indicate tone]
  8. ^ /ý/ appears only in loanwords and is often replaced by /í/.

Sources

  • Herrity, Peter (2000), Slovene: A Comprehensive Grammar, London: Routledge, ISBN 0415231485
  • Pretnar, Tone; Tokarz, Emil (1980), Slovenščina za Poljake: Kurs podstawowy języka słoweńskiego (in Polish), Katowice: Uniwersytet Śląski
  • Srebot-Rejec, Tatjana (1988), "Word Accent and Vowel Duration in Standard Slovene: An Acoustic and Linguistic Investigation", Slavistische Beiträge, Munich: Verlag Otto Sagner, 226, ISBN 3-87690-395-5
  • Šuštaršič, Rastislav; Komar, Smiljana; Petek, Bojan (1999), "Slovene", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 135–139, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
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