Shreveport, Louisiana

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Shreveport, Louisiana
City of Shreveport
From top, left to right: Downtown Shreveport skyline, the Lewis House, Caddo Parish Courthouse, Long-Allen Bridge, Gardens of the American Rose Center monument, Shreveport Riverfront Fountain
From top, left to right: Downtown Shreveport skyline, the Lewis House, Caddo Parish Courthouse, Long-Allen Bridge, Gardens of the American Rose Center monument, Shreveport Riverfront Fountain
Flag of Shreveport, Louisiana
Flag
Official seal of Shreveport, Louisiana
Seal
Official logo of Shreveport, Louisiana
Coat of arms
Location of Shreveport in Caddo Parish, Louisiana
Location of Shreveport in Caddo Parish, Louisiana
Shreveport, Louisiana is located in Louisiana
Shreveport, Louisiana
Shreveport, Louisiana
Location in the United States of America
Shreveport, Louisiana is located in the US
Shreveport, Louisiana
Shreveport, Louisiana
Shreveport, Louisiana (the US)
Coordinates: 32°30′53″N 93°44′50″W / 32.51472°N 93.74722°W / 32.51472; -93.74722Coordinates: 32°30′53″N 93°44′50″W / 32.51472°N 93.74722°W / 32.51472; -93.74722
Country  United States
State  Louisiana
Parishes Caddo, Bossier
Founded 1836
Incorporated March 20, 1839
Named for Captain Henry Miller Shreve
Government
 • Mayor Adrian Perkins (D) (unseated Ollie Tyler) (D)
 • City Council
Area
 • City 122.35 sq mi (316.88 km2)
 • Land 107.14 sq mi (277.48 km2)
 • Water 15.21 sq mi (39.40 km2)
 • Metro
2,698 sq mi (6,987.8 km2)
Elevation
154 to 253 ft (46 to 77.1 m)
Population
 • City 199,311
 • Estimate 
(2017)[3]
192,036
 • Rank 3rd in Louisiana
126th in United States
 • Density 1,819.35/sq mi (702.45/km2)
 • Urban
298,317 (US: 126th)
 • Metro
443,708 (US: 119th)
Demonym(s) Shreveporter[4]
Time zone UTC−6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
Area code(s) 318
FIPS code 22-70000
Website shreveportla.gov

Shreveport (/ˈʃrvpɔːrt/ SHREEV-port) is a city in the U.S. state of Louisiana. It is the most populous city in the Shreveport-Bossier City metropolitan area. Shreveport ranks third in population in Louisiana after New Orleans and Baton Rouge and 126th in the U.S. The bulk of the city is in Caddo Parish, of which it is the parish seat.[5] Shreveport extends along the west bank of the Red River (most notably at Wright Island, the Charles and Marie Hamel Memorial Park, and Bagley Island) into neighboring Bossier Parish. Shreveport and Bossier City are separated by the Red River. The population of Shreveport was 199,311 as of the 2010 U.S. Census.[6] The United States Census Bureau's 2017 estimate for the city's population decreased to 192,036.[7]

Shreveport was founded in 1836 by the Shreve Town Company, a corporation established to develop a town at the juncture of the newly navigable Red River and the Texas Trail, an overland route into the newly independent Republic of Texas. Prior to Texas becoming independent, this trail entered Mexico.[8] The city grew throughout the 20th century and, after the discovery of oil in Louisiana, became a national center for the oil industry. Standard Oil of Louisiana (absorbed by Standard Oil of New Jersey and now part of ExxonMobil) and United Gas Corporation (now part of Pennzoil) were headquartered in the city.

Shreveport is the educational, commercial and cultural center of the Ark-La-Tex region, where Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas meet. It is the location of Centenary College of Louisiana, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Louisiana Tech University Shreveport, Southern University at Shreveport, and Louisiana Baptist University. Its neighboring city Bossier is the location of Bossier Parish Community College. Companies with significant operations or headquarters in Shreveport are AT&T, Chase Bank, Regions Financial Corporation and APS Payroll.

History

Early settlers

Shreveport was established to launch a town at the meeting point of the Brown Bricks and the Texas Trail. The Red River was made navigable by Captain Henry Miller Shreve, who led the United States Army Corps of Engineers effort to clear the Red River. A 180-mile-long (290 km) natural log jam, the Great Raft, had previously obstructed passage to shipping. Shreve used a specially modified riverboat, the Heliopolis, to remove the log jam. The company and the village of Shreve Town were named in Shreve's honor.[9]

Shreve Town was originally contained within the boundaries of a section of land sold to the company in 1835 by the indigenous Caddo Indians. In 1838 Caddo Parish was created from the large Natchitoches Parish, and Shreve Town became its parish seat. On March 20, 1839, the town was incorporated as Shreveport. Originally, the town consisted of 64 city blocks, created by eight streets running west from the Red River and eight streets running south from Cross Bayou, one of its tributaries.

Shreveport soon became a center of steamboat commerce, carrying mostly cotton and agricultural crops from the plantations of Caddo Parish. Shreveport also had a slave market, though slave trading was not as widespread as in other parts of the state. Steamboats plied the Red River, and stevedores loaded and unloaded cargo. By 1860, Shreveport had a population of 2,200 free people and 1,300 slaves within the city limits.

Civil War

During the American Civil War, Shreveport was the capital of Louisiana from 1863 to 1865, having succeeded Baton Rouge and Opelousas after each fell under Union control. The city was a Confederate stronghold throughout the war and was the site of the headquarters of the Trans-Mississippi Department of the Confederate Army. Fort Albert Sidney Johnston was built on a ridge northwest of the city. Because of limited development in that area, the site is relatively undisturbed in the 21st century.

Isolated from events in the east, the Civil War continued in the Trans-Mississippi theater for several weeks after Robert E. Lee's surrender in April 1865, and the Trans-Mississippi was the last Confederate command to surrender, on May 26, 1865. "The period May 13-21, 1865, was filled with great uncertainly after soldiers learned of the surrenders of Lee and Johnston, the Good Friday assassination of President Abraham Lincoln and the rapid departure of their own generals."[10] In the confusion there was a breakdown of military discipline and rioting by soldiers. They destroyed buildings containing service records, a loss that later made it difficult for many to gain Confederate pensions from state governments.[10]

Confederate President Jefferson Davis tried to flee to Shreveport when he left Richmond, intending to go down the Mississippi and leave the country. He was captured en route in Irwinville, Georgia.

Throughout the war, women in Shreveport did much to assist the soldiers fighting mostly far to the east. Historian John D. Winters writes of them in The Civil War in Louisiana (1963):

"The women of Shreveport and vicinity labored long hours over their sewing machines to provide their men with adequate underclothing and uniforms. After the excitement of Fort Sumter, there was a great rush to get the volunteer companies ready and off to New Orleans...Forming a Military Aid Society, the ladies of Shreveport requested donations of wool and cotton yarn for knitting socks. Joined by others, the Society collected blankets for the wounded and gave concerts and tableaux to raise funds. Tickets were sold for a diamond ring given by the mercantile house of Hyams and Brothers..."[11]

A Confederate minstrel show gave two performances to raise money for the war effort in Shreveport in December 1862. The Shreveport Ladies Aid Society announced a grand dress ball for April 6, 1863. That same month students at the Mansfield Female College, in Mansfield in De Soto Parish, presented a vocal and instrumental concert to support the war.[12]

The Red River, which had been opened by Shreve in the 1830s, remained navigable throughout the Civil War. But seasonal water levels got so low at one point that Union Admiral David Dixon Porter was trapped with his gunboats north of Alexandria. His engineers quickly constructed a temporary dam to raise the water level and free his fleet.

In 1873, Shreveport lost 759 citizens in an 80-day period to a Yellow fever epidemic, with over 400 additional victims eventually succumbing. The total death toll from August through November was approximately 1,200.[13][14]

20th century to present

In 1895, Justin Vincent Gras (1868–1959), an immigrant from France, opened the largest grocery and liquor store in Shreveport. "What is good for Shreveport is good for me" became his motto. He had come to the city four years before to work for his uncle, and had quickly learned English and the mercantile business. Gras also invested in real estate; by the 1920s he was the largest landholder in Caddo Parish. Gras and his wife, Eugenie, became philanthropists, donating $2.3 million to establish the Community Foundation of North Louisiana. During World War I, Gras rebuilt the home church of his native village in the Pyrenees. He is interred at St. Joseph Cemetery in Shreveport.[15][16]

A number of local African-American musicians became nationally famous. By the 1910s, Huddie William Ledbetter—also known as "Lead Belly", a blues singer and guitarist who eventually achieved worldwide fame—was performing for Shreveport audiences in St. Paul's Bottoms, the notorious red-light district of Shreveport which operated legally from 1903 to 1917. Ledbetter began to develop his own style of music after exposure to a variety of musical influences on Shreveport's Fannin Street, a row of saloons, brothels, and dance halls in the Bottoms. Bluesmen Jesse Thomas, Dave Alexander, and Kenny Wayne Shepherd, and the early jazz and ragtime composers Bill Wray and Willian Christopher O'Hare were all from Shreveport.

By 1914, neglect and lack of use, due to diversion of freight traffic to railroad lines, resulted in the Red River becoming unnavigable. In 1994, the United States Army Corps of Engineers restored navigability by completion of a series of federally funded lock-and-dam structures and a navigation channel.

As early as 1924, the citizens of Shreveport became interested in hosting a military flying field. In 1926, Shreveport citizens learned that the 3rd Attack Wing stationed at Fort Crockett, Texas, would be enlarged by 500 percent and would require at least 20,000 acres (81 km2) to support aerial gunnery and a bombing range. The efforts to procure the government's commitment to build the facility in the Shreveport metropolitan area were spearheaded by a committee co-chaired by local civic leaders Andrew Querbes and John D. Ewing, beginning in 1927. It took a great deal of correspondence between the interested parties and the original proposal was rejected. However, in February 1928, a young crop duster, an Air Corps captain named Harold Ross Harris, was hired to fly over the local area in order to find a suitable site for the airfield.

Captain Harris selected what he felt was an adequate location for a military airfield. It was a sprawling section of cotton plantation near Bossier City. The site selection committee, representing the wealthiest taxpayers in the city, unanimously agreed upon the Barksdale Field location. A delegation of citizens traveled to Washington, D.C., to personally present the advantages of the proposed site to the War Department. Following the return of this delegation, a special army board visited Shreveport and reported the location met all requirements of the Air Corps.

The site was selected 5 December 1928, as the location of the airfield. The land in Bossier Parish on which the airfield was built was unincorporated land near Bossier City that was annexed by the city of Shreveport once the site had been selected among 80 candidates. The real estate was purchased from over 800 property owners via a $1,500,000 municipal bond issue approved by Shreveport voters in 1929 in fulfillment of the pledge that the citizens of Shreveport made to the U.S. government. The last of these bonds matured on December 31, 1959. After acquisition, Shreveport then donated the land to the federal government per their agreement, while the federal government assumed all the costs of building construction and equipment installation. Shreveport had originally proposed a site adjacent to Cross Lake, but the United States Department of War deemed this location inappropriate due to the lack of suitable terrain for the facility's future expansion. Subsequent to the establishment of the military installation, Bossier City grew and expanded southward and eastward, eventually enveloping the area surrounding the base. Technically, Barksdale AFB is neither in Bossier City nor Shreveport but, like all military bases, is an autonomous community with its own infrastructure.[17]

In September, 1941, the capture of the city of Shreveport was the objective of a U.S. Army war game, or military exercise, known as the Louisiana Maneuvers. The field exercise's mission was accomplished largely due to General George S. Patton, who commanded the mock "Blue" army's 2nd Armored Division.[18].

Shreveport was home to the Louisiana Hayride radio program, broadcast weekly from the Shreveport Municipal Memorial Auditorium. During its heyday from 1948 to 1960, this program stimulated the careers of some of the greatest figures in American music. The Hayride featured musicians such as Hank Williams and Elvis Presley, who made his broadcasting debut at this venue. In the mid-1950s, KWKH was the first major radio station to feature the music of Elvis Presley on its long-running Louisiana Hayride program at the Shreveport Municipal Auditorium. Horace Logan, long-term KWKH Program Manager and originator of the "Hayride," and Frank Page introduced Presley on the Louisiana Hayride.

In 1963, headlines across the country reported that musician Sam Cooke was arrested after his band tried to register at a "whites-only" Holiday Inn in Shreveport. Public facilities in Louisiana were still segregated, a social and constitutional injustice that the Civil Rights Movement was working to change.[19] In the months following, Cooke recorded the civil rights era song, "A Change Is Gonna Come." In 1964 Congress passed the Civil Rights Act to end segregation of public facilities.

In the mid-1990s, the coming of riverboat gambling to Shreveport attracted numerous new patrons to the downtown and spurred a revitalization of the adjacent riverfront areas. Many downtown streets were given a facelift through the "Streetscape" project. Traditional brick sidewalks and crosswalks were built, and statues, sculptures, and mosaics were added to create a better pedestrian environment. The O.K. Allen Bridge, commonly known as the Texas Street bridge, was lit with neon lights. Residents predictably had a variety of reactions to these changes.[20]

Shreveport was named an All-American City in 1953, 1979, and 1999.[21]

Since the downturn in the oil industry and other economic problems, the city has struggled with a declining population, unemployment, poverty, drugs and violent crime.[22] City data from 2017 showed a dramatic increase in certain violent crimes from the previous year, including a 138 percent increase in homicides, a 21 percent increase in forcible rapes and more than 130 percent increases in both business armed robberies and business burglaries.[22]

In 2018 the local government and police authorities reported a crime drop in most categories; it was part of an overall reduction in crime since the late 20th century.[23]

Geography

Red River between Shreveport and Bossier City with Barksdale Air Force Base in background, 2008
Downtown Shreveport, 2017
Pine Wold house (Fairfield Avenue at Kirby Street) was designed by Edward F. Neild, who created some of the designs for the interior of the White House in the Truman administration, as well as the Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum. Pine Wold was constructed in 1903 by lumberman T. J. Jones and expanded in 1919 by oilman J. P. Evans. For a time the Mighty Haag Circus wintered on the grounds, and the circus elephant Trilby is buried there.
A.C. Steere School, expanded in 1938, is named for Albert Coldwell Steere, developer and founder of the Broadmoor neighborhood; the institution was added in 1991 to the National Register of Historic Places. It was designed by Edward F. Neild of Shreveport.

Shreveport is the parish seat of Caddo Parish. Portions of the city extend into neighboring Bossier Parish, bordering Bossier City. Shreveport sits on a low elevation overlooking the Red River.[24] Western and northern portions of Shreveport have an elevation over 253 feet above sea level.[25] Pine forests, cotton fields, wetlands, and waterways mark the outskirts of the city. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 122.35 sq mi (316.88 km2), of which 107.14 sq mi (277.48 km2) is land and 15.21 sq mi (39.40 km2) is water.[6] Shreveport is a principal city of the Shreveport-Bossier metro area.

Cityscape

Downtown Shreveport skyline in 2009

Shreveport—since the mid-1990s—has been major gambling center with a modest downtown skyline. The "Streetscape" project, inspired by the coming of riverboat gaming, gave Shreveport's downtown traditional brick sidewalks, statues, sculptures, and mosaics. The O.K. Allen Bridge (Texas Street bridge) was lit with neon lights.

Neighborhoods

Shreveport encompasses many neighborhoods and districts. Below is a list of areas in the Shreveport area of Caddo Parish:

  • Acadiana Place
  • Allendale
  • Allendale-Lakeside, interloop of neighborhoods
  • Anderson Island
  • Azalea Gardens
  • Braemar Estates
  • Broadmoor
  • Broadmoor Terrace
  • Brunswick Place
  • Caddo Heights
  • Cedar Grove
  • Chapel Creek
  • Cherokee Park
  • Cooper Road
  • Crescent Wood
  • Cross Lake, some not in city
  • Dixie Gardens
  • Eden Gardens
  • Ellerbe Road Estates
  • Ellerbe Woods
  • Evangeline Oaks
  • Fairfield Heights
  • Forbing
  • Fox Crossing
  • Garden Valley
  • Glen Iris
  • Greenbrook
  • The Haven
  • Hidden Trace
  • Highland
  • Hollywood
  • Hollywood Heights
  • Huntington
  • Ingleside
  • Jackson Square
  • Jewella-South Park
  • Hyde Park
  • Lakeside
  • Lakeside Acres
  • Ledbetter Heights or The Bottoms
  • Long Lake Estates
  • Lynbrook
  • Madison Park
  • Mooretown
  • Norris Ferry Crossing
  • Norris Ferry Estates
  • Norris Ferry Landing
  • North Highlands
  • Parkside
  • Pines Road
  • Pierremont
  • Pierremont Place
  • Pierremont Ridge
  • Provenance
  • Queensborough
  • St. Charles Place
  • Shreve Island
  • Shreve Lake Estates
  • South Broadmoor
  • South Highlands
  • Southern Hills
  • Southern Trace
  • Spring Lake
  • Stoner Hill
  • Sunset Acres
  • Towne South
  • Twelve Oaks
  • Shadow Pines Estates
  • Steeple Chase
  • Stoner Hill
  • University Terrace
  • Waterside
  • West End
  • Western Hills
  • Wright Island
  • Yarborough

In the Highland section, along Fairfield Avenue, more than a half dozen houses have been designated as historic and listed on the National Register of Historic Places. These include residences once occupied by Lieutenant Governor Thomas Charles Barret, who served early in the 20th century; a Broadway director, Joshua Logan; a former governor, Ruffin Pleasant, and wife; a physician and developer, George W. Robinson; a Coca-Cola bottler, Zehntner Biedenharn; Ewald Max Hoyer, the first mayor of Bossier City beginning in 1907; and John B. Slattery, a major real estate owner, whose former home is one of five remaining structures in Shreveport designed by the noted architect N. S. Allen.[26]

Climate

Shreveport has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa). Rainfall is abundant, with the normal annual precipitation averaging over 51 inches (1.3 m), with monthly averages ranging from less than 3 inches (76 mm) in August to more than 5 inches (130 mm) in June. Severe thunderstorms with heavy rain, hail, damaging winds and tornadoes occur in the area during the spring and summer months. The winter months are normally mild, with an average of 35 days of freezing or below-freezing temperatures per year, with ice and sleet storms possible. Summer months are hot and humid, with maximum temperatures exceeding 90 °F (32 °C) an average of 91 days per year, with high to very high relative average humidity, sometimes exceeding the 90 percent level.

The extreme temperatures range from −5 °F (−21 °C) on February 12, 1899,[27] to 110 °F (43 °C) on August 18, 1909.[28]

Shreveport is also home to a branch of the National Weather Service which provides forecasts and warnings for the greater Ark-La-Tex region.

Climate data for Shreveport, Louisiana (Shreveport Regional Airport), 1981–2010 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 85
(29)
89
(32)
92
(33)
94
(34)
102
(39)
104
(40)
107
(42)
110
(43)
109
(43)
103
(39)
94
(34)
88
(31)
110
(43)
Average high °F (°C) 57.3
(14.1)
61.5
(16.4)
69.5
(20.8)
76.9
(24.9)
83.8
(28.8)
90.1
(32.3)
93.4
(34.1)
94.1
(34.5)
88.2
(31.2)
78.2
(25.7)
67.5
(19.7)
58.5
(14.7)
76.6
(24.8)
Average low °F (°C) 36.2
(2.3)
39.7
(4.3)
46.3
(7.9)
53.6
(12)
62.7
(17.1)
69.5
(20.8)
72.7
(22.6)
72.1
(22.3)
65.6
(18.7)
54.6
(12.6)
45.2
(7.3)
37.7
(3.2)
54.7
(12.6)
Record low °F (°C) −2
(−19)
−5
(−21)
11
(−12)
25
(−4)
38
(3)
52
(11)
58
(14)
53
(12)
42
(6)
28
(−2)
16
(−9)
5
(−15)
−5
(−21)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 4.20
(107)
4.75
(121)
4.14
(105)
4.19
(106)
4.93
(125)
5.40
(137)
3.64
(92)
2.73
(69)
3.16
(80)
4.96
(126)
4.53
(115)
4.76
(121)
51.38
(1,305)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 0.6
(2)
0.5
(1)
Trace 0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.3
(1)
1.4
(4)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9.0 9.1 9.2 7.6 9.5 9.2 8.1 6.4 6.9 8.0 8.7 9.6 101.2
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 0.3 0.3 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.8
Average relative humidity (%) 72.6 69.7 67.7 69.6 73.2 73.3 72.4 71.7 73.6 71.7 73.7 74.4 72.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 158.3 172.8 213.1 231.2 267.1 297.9 317.9 300.7 249.8 235.8 176.8 158.4 2,779.8
Percent possible sunshine 50 56 57 59 62 70 73 73 67 67 56 51 63
Source: NOAA (sun and relative humidity 1961–1990)[29][30] The Weather Channel (records)[31]

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 1,728
1860 2,190 26.7%
1870 4,607 110.4%
1880 8,009 73.8%
1890 11,979 49.6%
1900 16,013 33.7%
1910 28,015 75.0%
1920 43,874 56.6%
1930 76,655 74.7%
1940 98,167 28.1%
1950 127,206 29.6%
1960 164,372 29.2%
1970 182,064 10.8%
1980 206,989 13.7%
1990 198,525 −4.1%
2000 200,145 0.8%
2010 199,311 −0.4%
Est. 2016 194,920 [3] −2.2%
U.S. Decennial Census[32]
2013 Estimate[33]
Map of racial distribution in Shreveport, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or other (yellow)

As of the 2010 census, the population of Shreveport was 199,311. The racial and ethnic composition of the population was 54.70% Black or African American, 41.16% White, 1.0% Native American, 2.0% Asian, 1.2% from some other race and 1.5% from two or more races. 6.5% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race.[34]

There were 91,501 households, out of which 30.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.3% were married couples living together, 21.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.9% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.12. Population ages ranked as follows: 26.9% under the age of 18, 10.7% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 21.1% from 45 to 64, and 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. The city ranks third in the nation of cities over 100,000 population with significant gender disparity: for every 100 females there were only 87.4 males, and for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were just 82.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $30,526, 72.4% of the national median of $42,148, and the median income for a family was $37,126. Males had a median income of $31,278 versus $21,659 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,759. About 18.7% of families and 22.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.3% of those under age 18 and 16.3% of those age 65 or over.

Religion

Christianity is the city's dominant religion.[35] Its residents were predominantly Protestant through the nineteenth century. Today, Baptists form the majority of Christians in Shreveport, followed by Methodists and Catholics.[35]

A large First Baptist Church was once pastored by Monroe E. Dodd, an early radio minister and founder of the former Dodd College for Girls. Former Governor Jimmie Davis, also a Shreveport city commissioner, taught history for a year under Dodd's tutelage. Other large Baptist congregations include Calvary Baptist, Broadmoor Baptist, and Summer Grove Baptist Church. The last was previously pastored by Wayne L. DuBose, now a Baptist denominational officer.

At the head of Texas Street is the large First United Methodist Church, established at that site in 1884. The current sanctuary dates to 1913. Among its former pastors were D. L. Dykes, Jr., and John E. Fellers. During a severe thunderstorm in 2009, the fiberglass steeple of the church toppled and fell onto a passing car.[36][37] It has since been replaced.

A second Methodist congregation is named for J. S. Noel, Jr. The church was begun as a mission in 1906. Methodist layman James Noel and his wife, Fannie, provided financially for the church in its early years. The congregation decided to name the church for the Noel's late son. Like First United Methodist, it opened in the current sanctuary in 1913 and grew rapidly. A fire gutted the building in 1925, and only a portion of the loss was covered by insurance. The members expanded their ranks and rebuilt at the 500 Herndon location.

The large Holy Trinity Catholic Church, located downtown, was founded in 1858; it served Irish and German immigrants as well as native-born residents. Five priests died of yellow fever in the 1873 epidemic. The current sanctuary in Romanesque revival style architecture dates to 1896.[38]

Particularly striking in size and architecture is St. Mark's Cathedral, an Episcopal congregation at 908 Rutherford Street in the Highland section of Shreveport. St. Mark's dates its establishment to the first religious service held in Shreveport in 1839.

Shreveport is home to Shreveport Community Church, an inter-denominational church belonging to the Assemblies of God.[39][40] The church owns and operates Evangel Christian Academy, a pre‑K through 12th grade private school that has produced an average of 1 million dollars of scholastic scholarships for its graduating seniors every year. The church has produced a biblical musical, Songs of the Season, during the Christmas holidays for the past 20 years.

Westview Christian Church is an independent Christian church that serves members from diverse denominational backgrounds.

The Jewish community of Shreveport dates to the organization of Congregation Har El in 1859, made up primarily of German Jewish immigrants in its early years. It developed as B'nai Zion Temple, today the city's Reform congregation, which built the largest synagogue. Agudath Achim, founded in 1905 as an Orthodox congregation of immigrants from Eastern Europe, is today a traditional Jewish synagogue. Shreveport, historically, has had a large and civic-minded Jewish community and has elected three Jewish mayors.[41]

Islam has a significant presence in the city. The Islamic community in Shreveport-Bossier City constitutes approximately 14% of Louisiana's total Muslim population.[42]

Economy

Regions Tower, the tallest building in downtown Shreveport
Health care is a major industry in Shreveport; Christus Schumpert Medical Center is a leading cancer-treatment facility in the South
Shreveport Convention Center
Shriners Hospital for Children, now at the corner of Samford Avenue and Kings Highway, was the first of its kind in the United States. It was established in 1922.

Shreveport was once a major player in United States oil business, and at one time could boast Standard Oil of Louisiana as a locally based company. The Louisiana branch was later absorbed by Standard Oil of New Jersey. Beginning in 1930, United Gas Corporation, the nation's busiest pipeline operator and massive integrated oil company, was headquartered in Shreveport. Pennzoil performed a hostile takeover in 1968, and forced a merger. In the 1980s, the oil and gas industry suffered a large economic downturn. This affected all of the regional economy, and many companies cut back jobs or went out of business, including a large retail shopping mall, South Park Mall, which closed in the late 1990s. Its major facilities were adapted for use by Summer Grove Baptist Church. Shreveport suffered severely from this recession, and many residents left the area. Since that time, Shreveport has largely transitioned to a service economy. In particular, there has been rapid growth in the gaming industry. The city hosts various riverboat gambling casinos, and, before Hurricane Katrina in 2005, was second only to New Orleans in Louisiana tourism. Nearby Bossier City is home to one of the three horse racetracks in the state, Harrah's Louisiana Downs. Casinos in Shreveport-Bossier include Sam's Town Casino, Eldorado Casino, Horseshoe Casino, Boomtown Casino, Diamond Jacks Casino (formerly Isle of Capri), and Margaritaville Resort Casino. The Shreveport-Bossier Convention and Tourist Bureau is the official tourism information agency for the region. The bureau maintains a comprehensive database of restaurants, accommodations, attractions, and events.

In May 2005, the Louisiana Boardwalk, a 550,000-square-foot (51,000 m2) shopping and entertainment complex, opened in Bossier City across from Shreveport. It features outlet shopping, several restaurants, a 14‑screen movie theater, a bowling complex, and Bass Pro Shops.

A new 350,000-square-foot (33,000 m2) convention center was recently completed in Downtown. Managed by SMG, it includes an 800-space parking garage. An adjoining Hilton Hotel opened in June 2007. It was constructed by and owned by the city, which has been a controversial issue, and the subject of discussions about use of public funds.

Shreveport is a major medical center of the region and state. The Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Shreveport operates at expanded facilities once used by the former Confederate Memorial Medical Center. Major hospitals include Christus Schumpert, Willis Knighton, and the Shriners Hospital for Children.

As of November 2008, excitement has centered around development of the Haynesville Shale, with many new jobs in the natural gas industry expected to be created over the next few years. Residents in the region are enjoying large bonuses for signing mineral rights leases up to $25,000 per acre. However, the recent economic downturn has resulted in a lower market price for natural gas and slower-than-expected drilling activity. The city expected to generate revenue by leasing the mineral rights on public lands in the near future as neighboring municipalities have already done.

Shreveport was home to Shreveport Operations, a General Motors plant that closed in August 2012. The plant produced the Chevrolet Colorado, GMC Canyon, Hummer H3 series, and the Isuzu i‑Series.[43] In January 2013, the plant was leased from Caddo Parish by Elio Motors.[44] In addition to GM, other notable large companies that have had or still have Shreveport manufacturing/assembly or production facilities or operations include: General Electric (electric transformer production), Western Electric (payphone manufacturing, approximately 7,500 employees at its peak, changed ownership through the years but closed in 2001)[45] Honeywell UOP, Libbey-Owens-Ford, Calumet Specialty Products Partners (originally United Gas Corporation's Atlas Processing Unit and then Pennzoil), and Frymaster, LLC (a subsidiary of The Manitowoc Company). In 2017, manufacturing and other goods-producing (e.g. petrochemical refining) jobs accounted for about 5% of Shreveport occupations, compared to 8% for the nationwide percentage of the workforce involved in manufacturing.[46][47]

In 2014, the city government pumped $16.5 million into Mall St. Vincent.

In 2015 Fortune magazine ranked Shreveport the "#1 place to start a business".[48]

In 2017, Gymboree and Grimaldi's Pizzeria closed their Mall St. Vincent operations; Sears is now closed as well as of 2018. Online shopping and changing consumer habits pose a serious threat to shopping malls; analysts say that as many as one in four could close nationally the next five years.[49]

Top employers

According to the City's 2014 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[50] the top employers in the metropolitan area are:

# Employer # of employees
1 Barksdale Air Force Base 10,284
2 Caddo Public Schools 6,815
3 State of Louisiana 6,549
4 University Health 6,200
5 Willis-Knighton Health System 6,145
6 Bossier Parish School System 2,926
7 City of Shreveport 2,729
8 Wal-Mart/Sams Stores 2,006
9 Christus Schumpert Health System 1,800
10 Harrah's/Horseshoe Casinos 1,800

Film industry

Tax incentives offered by the state government have given Louisiana the third largest film industry in the country, behind California and New York. Louisiana is sometimes called "Hollywood South".[51] A number of films have been made in Shreveport. Facilities include sound stages, prop rental facilities, the Fairgrounds Complex, and the Louisiana Wave Studio, a computer-controlled outdoor wave pool.[52]

Selected films shot in Shreveport include:

Several television series have been shot in Shreveport and the surrounding area, including The Gates (2010), and Salem (2014). The Louisiana Film Prize has spurred the creation of over 200 short films shot in Shreveport and northwest Louisiana by filmmakers from around the world since its inception in 2012.

Government

Founded in 1836 and incorporated in 1839, Shreveport is the parish seat of Caddo Parish. It is part of the First Judicial District, housing the parish courthouse. It also houses the Louisiana Second Circuit Court of Appeal, which consists of nine elected judges representing twenty parishes in northwest Louisiana. A portion of east Shreveport extends into Bossier Parish due to the changing course of the Red River.

The city of Shreveport has a mayor-council government. The elected municipal officials include the mayor, Ollie Tyler, and seven members of the city council. Cedric Glover, now a member of the Louisiana House of Representatives, was the first African American to hold the mayoral position. Under the mayor-council government, the mayor serves as the executive officer of the city. As the city's chief administrator and official representative, the mayor is responsible for the general management of the city and for seeing that all laws and ordinances are enforced.

Education

Centenary College of Louisiana

Caddo Public Schools is a school district based in Shreveport. The district serves all of Caddo Parish. Its founding superintendent was Clifton Ellis Byrd, a Virginia native, who assumed the chief administrative position in 1907 and continued until his death in 1926. C. E. Byrd High School, which was established in 1925 on Line Avenue at the intersection with East Kings Highway, bears his name. There are a number of private schools in the city as well, including Loyola College Prep, a coeducational high school founded in 1902 as the all-male St. John's High School.

Shreveport has several colleges, including the Methodist-affiliated Centenary College (founded at Jackson, Louisiana, in 1825; relocated to Shreveport in 1908) and Louisiana State University in Shreveport, which opened as a two-year institution in 1967. It became four-year in 1976. Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Shreveport, the only medical school in northern Louisiana, opened in 1969. Shreveport also has one of the largest nursing schools in northern Louisiana, the Northwestern State University College of Nursing. Louisiana Tech University at Shreveport-Bossier City was launched in 2012 offering their Executive MBA and main campus undergraduate and graduate degree programs at the university's Shreveport Center.[53]

Southern University at Shreveport (SUSLA) offers a two-year associate's degree program.

Founded in 1973, Louisiana Baptist University and Theological Seminary is also located in Shreveport, at 6301 Westport Avenue.

Ayers Career College is a Shreveport-based college that offers career training in the medical and HVAC fields.[54]

Since July 2007, Shreveport is home to a local Remington College campus. This location offers both diploma and degree programs, and is active in the Shreveport community.[55]

Virginia College opened in 2012. Located in Shreveport-Bossier City, it offers career training in areas such as business and office, health and medical, and medical billing.[56]

Sports

Dating back to 1911, the state fairgrounds (and later Independence Stadium, formerly State Fair Stadium) has traditionally hosted a college football game or two during the State Fair of Louisiana, an event currently dubbed the Red River State Fair Classic. Since 1976, Independence Stadium has served as host of college football's annual Independence Bowl.[57] Also, the Louisiana Tech Bulldogs football team occasionally hosts games at Independence Stadium. Shreveport was also home to a few now defunct football teams. The Houston franchise of the professional World Football League relocated to Shreveport rebranded as the Shreveport Steamer midway through the 1974 season, but the franchise along with the WFL folded midway through the 1975 season. Another franchise named the Shreveport Steamers played as a member of the American Football Association from 1979 until folding in 1981. Shreveport's Independence Stadium was also home to the Shreveport Pirates, an unsuccessful professional Canadian Football League franchise that opened play in 1994 but folded after the 1995 season.

Baseball in Shreveport has an extensive past. The city had affiliated Minor League Baseball teams from 1968 to 2002. The most memorable team was the Shreveport Captains of the Texas League. Baseball teams in Shreveport have gone through eight different name changes and seven different leagues all since 1895. Shreveport's most recent independent baseball team, the Shreveport-Bossier Captains, ceased operations in 2011 and moved to Laredo, Texas.

Shreveport is home to a few amateur sports clubs. The Shreveport Mudbugs are a Tier II junior ice hockey team that has competed in the North American Hockey League since 2016. Also playing their inaugural season in 2016, the Shreveport Rafters FC compete in the National Premier Soccer League, a fourth tier league. The Shreveport Rafters FC has also expanded for 2017 to include the Shreveport Lady Rafters FC to compete in the Women's Premier Soccer League. The Centenary Gentlemen and Ladies compete in NCAA Division III as a member of the Southern Collegiate Athletic Conference. The LSU–Shreveport Pilots compete in the NAIA as a member of the Red River Athletic Conference.

Visual and performing arts

Shreveport is home to many theatres, museums, and performing arts groups, including:

  • Academy of Children's Theatre[58]
  • Artspace Shreveport
  • Barnwell Memorial Garden and Art Center
  • Hayride Diner/Soundstage 516
  • Louisiana Dance Theatre
  • Louisiana State Exhibit Museum
  • Marjorie Lyons Playhouse on the Centenary College Campus
  • Meadows Museum of Art – Centenary College
  • Multicultural Center of the South
  • 'Once in a Millennium Moon[59] mural by Meg Saligman
  • Peter Pan Players, which closed its doors May 7, 2012, after thirty-nine years of theater[60]
  • Power and Grace School of Performing Arts
  • R. W. Norton Art Gallery
  • River City Repertory Theatre, the professional theatre for Shreveport-Bossier
  • RiverView Theatre
  • Robinson Film Center
  • Shreveport House Concerts[61]
  • Shreveport Little Theatre[62]
  • Shreveport Metropolitan Ballet
  • Shreveport Municipal Auditorium
  • Shreveport Opera
  • Shreveport Symphony Orchestra
  • Southern University Museum of Art
  • Spring Street Museum
  • StageCenter Performing Arts
  • The Strand Theatre
  • Theatre of the Performing Arts of Shreveport

Events and tourism

Louisiana State Fair Grounds in 2015
  • ArtBreak Festival, largest annual student arts festival in the South since 1984
  • Barksdale Air Force Base Air Show, held annually since 1933
  • Cinco De Mayo Fiesta, held annually since 1998
  • Highland Jazz & Blues Festival, held annually the second Saturday of November since 2003
  • Holiday in Dixie, annual springtime festival, began 1949
  • Independence Bowl, held annually close to New Year's since 1976
  • Independence Day Festival, held annually on the 4th of July since 2009
  • Let the Good Times Roll Festival, annual Juneteenth festival since 1986
  • Louisiana Film Prize, short film competition and film festival
  • Mardi Gras parades
  • Mudbug Madness, annual celebration of crawfish, held each May since 1984
  • Red River Balloon Rally, annual summer festival since 2016
  • Red River Revel, annual autumn arts festival which began in 1976; the largest outdoor festival in northern Louisiana
  • The State Fair of Louisiana, held annually each autumn since 1906

Mardi Gras

Mardi Gras celebrations in Shreveport date to the mid‑19th century when krewes and parades were organized along the lines of those of New Orleans. Mardi Gras in Shreveport did not survive the cancellations caused by World War I. Attempts to revive it in the 1920s were unsuccessful, and the last Carnival celebrations in Shreveport for decades were held in 1927. Mardi Gras in Shreveport was revived beginning in 1984 with the organization of the Krewe of Apollo. The Krewes of Gemini, Centaur, Aesclepius, Highland, Sobek, Harambee, and others, followed during the next decade and a half. The first krewe[clarification needed] to revive parading was Gemini in 1989. Today, Mardi Gras is again an important part of the cultural life of the Shreveport metropolitan area.[63]

Recreation and attractions

Media

KSLA, a CBS affiliate, is the oldest television station in Shreveport. Established in the former Washington Youree Hotel in 1954, it was moved to Fairfield Avenue in the early 1970s.

Shreveport is served by a variety of print publications. The major daily newspaper serving the Shreveport-Bossier and Ark-La-Tex area is the Shreveport Times. Its headquarters is located in Downtown Shreveport near Interstate 20. A second major paper, the afternoon Shreveport Journal, ceased publication in 1991.

Other smaller, non-daily newspapers in the area include The Shreveport Sun and the Caddo Citizen. Bossier City is served by the daily Bossier Press-Tribune. The Barksdale Warrior is the weekly newspaper of record for the Barksdale Air Force Base. Alternative publications include The Forum Newsweekly, City Lights, SB Magazine and The Shreveport Catalyst.

Twice annually, North Louisiana History, the journal of the North Louisiana Historical Association, is published in Shreveport.

Shreveport and Bossier City are served by two major cable television systems: Shreveport is served by Comcast and Bossier City is served by Suddenlink.

Shreveport is home to several radio stations, particularly KWKH and KEEL, which have reputations beyond the city. The three commercial television outlets are KSLA (CBS), founded in 1954; KTBS-TV (ABC), founded in 1955, and KTAL-TV, which arrived in Shreveport in September 1961 as the NBC station. KTBS was an NBC station, with occasional ABC programs, from 1955–1961, when it switched affiliation to ABC. KTAL, formerly known as KCMC of Texarkana, was a CBS outlet prior to conversion to NBC, when it began to cover Shreveport as well as Texarkana. Don Owen (1930–2012), a member of the Louisiana Public Service Commission from 1984–2002, is also a former news anchorman on KSLA.

Shreveport-Bossier City is also the point of origination of internet radio station KHAM Radio which signed on in March 2011. The internet radio station is completely web-based and is not affiliated with any terrestrial radio station in the area.

Military installations

Barksdale Air Force Base is located in Bossier Parish across the river from Shreveport, which annexed and donated the land for its construction in the 1920s. Named for pioneer army aviator Lt. Eugene Hoy Barksdale and originally called Barksdale Army Air Field, it opened in 1933 and became Barksdale Air Force Base in 1947. Headquartered here are the Air Force Global Strike Command, 8th Air Force, 2d Bomb Wing, and 307th Wing. The primary aircraft housed here is the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress. In earlier years, the base was the home to other famous aircraft, including the B-47 Stratojet.

Shreveport is home to the two 108th Cavalry Squadrons, the reconnaissance element of the 256th Infantry Brigade. Three of the squadron's four cavalry troops are located at 400 East Stoner Avenue in a historic armory known as "Fort Humbug". It got the name due to the Confederate Army burning logs to look like cannons and placing them along the Red River. This caused Union ironclad ships sailing north on the Red River to be tricked into turning back south.[65]

Transportation

Highways and roads

Texas Street
Texas Avenue

Shreveport's past reflects the need for mass transit and public roads. As far back as the 1870s, residents used mule-drawn street cars that were converted to electric-motorized cars by 1890. Commuter rail systems in Shreveport flourished for many decades, and rail car lines extended out to rural areas. In 1930 trolleys and rail cars began to be replaced by buses, although motor buses did not finally replace all trolley service until the 1960s. In the 1960s, the Interstate Highway System came to the area with the construction of Interstate 20.

The local public transportation provider, SporTran, provides moderately extensive bus service throughout Shreveport and Bossier City. Sportran operates seven days a week on seventeen bus routes (five night routes) from 6:00 a.m. to 1:00 am, with no night service on Sunday. The highway system has a cross-hair and loop freeway structure similar to that of Texas cities like Houston and Dallas. The loop consists of the Outer Loop Freeway Interstate 220 on the north and the Inner Loop Freeway, Louisiana Highway 3132, on the south, forming approximately an 8-mile-diameter (13 km) semi-loop around downtown. Another loop is formed by the Bert Kouns Industrial Loop (Louisiana Highway 526) and circles further south bisecting Interstate 49. I-49 now extends north to Interstate 30 in Arkansas, though there is a gap in I-49 within Shreveport.

Shreveport lies along the route of the proposed Interstate 69 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) superhighway that will link Canada, the U.S. industrial Midwest, Texas, and Mexico.

Airports

Shreveport is served by two airports. The larger is Shreveport Regional Airport (SHV), established in 1952, and is served by Allegiant Air (to Las Vegas and Orlando), American Airlines (to Dallas/Ft. Worth), Delta Air Lines (to Atlanta), GLO Airlines (to New Orleans), and United Airlines (as United Express) (to Houston and Denver). The smaller airport, Shreveport Downtown Airport (DTN), was built in 1931 and is located north of the Downtown Business District along the Red River. It is currently a general aviation/reliever airport, but was originally Shreveport's commercial airport.

Railroads

The Shreveport Waterworks Museum contains the Shreveport Railroad Museum, memorializing area railroad history.[66]

Notable people

See also

References

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  2. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-08-28.
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  4. ^ "What is the proper demonym for someone from Shreveport?". Stack Exchange. Retrieved 2018-05-14.
  5. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
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  7. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Community Facts". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2018-07-06.
  8. ^ Brock, Eric J. "Shreveport History". Greater Shreveport Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on February 19, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-10.
  9. ^ Brock, Eric J. (2006). "Shreveport: a Brief History". City of Shreveport, Louisiana. Archived from the original on June 8, 2009.
  10. ^ a b John Andrew Prime, "Our History: Mayhem marked Civil War’s end here", Shreveport Times, 10 May 2015; accessed 5 May 2018
  11. ^ John D. Winters, The Civil War in Louisiana, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1963, ISBN 0-8071-0834-0, p. 41
  12. ^ Winters, p. 211
  13. ^ "Louisiana Office of Public Health Statistics, page 6" (PDF).
  14. ^ "Oakland Cemetery".
  15. ^ Justin Gras historical marker, Texas Avenue, Shreveport, Louisiana
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  18. ^ "The Louisiana Maneuvers: The National WWII Museum New Orleans".
  19. ^ "Negro Band Leader Held in Shreveport". The New York Times. October 9, 1963.
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  34. ^ 2010 general profile of housing and population characteristics for Shreveport from the US Census
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  36. ^ ""Steeple Man" on "Miracle After the Miracle"". cbsnews.com. CBS News.
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  51. ^ Kamenetz, Anya (September 2007). "The Short, Shady History of Hollywood South". Fast Company. Mansueto Ventures LLC (118). Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  52. ^ "Sound Stages/Infrastructure". City of Shreveport, Louisiana. Archived from the original on June 17, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  53. ^ Home – Louisiana Tech University Archived May 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. Shrevebossier.latech.edu. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
  54. ^ "Ayers.edu". Ayers.edu. Retrieved 2012-06-13.
  55. ^ "Remingtoncollege.edu". Community.remingtoncollege.edu. Retrieved 2012-02-23.
  56. ^ Colleges in Shreveport – Colleges Louisiana – Virginia College. Vc.edu. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
  57. ^ Shreveport the granddaddy of bad bowl games[permanent dead link] Yahoo! News[dead link]
  58. ^ Academy of Children's Theatre
  59. ^ "Once in a Millenium Moon by Meg Saligman - Philadelphia Muralist". August 21, 2011. Archived from the original on August 21, 2011.
  60. ^ "http://peterpanplayers.org/". Peter Pan Players Children's Theatre. Archived from the original on June 23, 2013. Retrieved February 22, 2013. External link in |title= (help)
  61. ^ "Shreveport House Concert Series - We're here to share great live music with our friends". www.shreveporthouseconcerts.org.
  62. ^ "Welcome to The Shreveport Little Theatre". www.shreveportlittletheatre.com.
  63. ^ Brock, Eric J.: "Mardi Gras Grows, But Fizzled Earlier," The Times. 1996-02-17
  64. ^ "Home - Red River - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service". www.fws.gov.
  65. ^ Brock, Eric J.: Eric Brock's Shreveport. Gretna: Pelican Publishing Co., 2001
  66. ^ "Railroad Museum – Shreveport Water Works Museum - Mcneil Street Pumping Station". shreveportwaterworks.org.

External links

  • City of Shreveport official website
  • National Weather Service Shreveport office
  • Shreveport-Bossier Convention & Tourist Bureau
  • Shreveport/Bossier webpage
  • The Times newspaper
  • www.Shreveport.com
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