Singapore Airlines Flight 006

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Singapore Airlines Flight 006
Boeing 747-412, Singapore Airlines AN1397976.jpg
9V-SPK, the aircraft involved in May 2000, five months before it crashed
Accident
Date 31 October 2000 (2000-10-31)
Summary Crashed into construction equipment during takeoff on a closed runway
Site Runway 05R, Chiang Kai-Shek International Airport, Taoyuan, Taiwan
25°4′35″N 121°13′26″E / 25.07639°N 121.22389°E / 25.07639; 121.22389Coordinates: 25°4′35″N 121°13′26″E / 25.07639°N 121.22389°E / 25.07639; 121.22389
Aircraft
Aircraft type Boeing 747-412
Operator Singapore Airlines
Registration 9V-SPK
Flight origin Singapore Changi Airport
Stopover Chiang Kai-shek Int'l Airport (now Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport), Taoyuan, Taiwan
Destination Los Angeles Int'l Airport, Los Angeles, California, United States
Passengers 159
Crew 20
Fatalities 83 (including 2 from injuries)
Injuries 71
Survivors 96 (98 initially)

Singapore Airlines Flight 006 (SQ006/SIA006)[a] was a scheduled Singapore Airlines passenger flight from Singapore Changi Airport to Los Angeles International Airport via Chiang Kai-shek International Airport (now Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport) in Taipei, Taiwan. On 31 October 2000, at 23:17 Taipei local time (15:17 UTC), the Boeing 747-412 operating the flight attempted to take off from the wrong runway at Chiang Kai-shek International Airport during a typhoon. The aircraft crashed into construction equipment on the runway, killing 81 of the 179 occupants aboard. 98 initially survived the impact, but two passengers died later from injuries in a hospital.[1] As of 2018, the accident is the third-deadliest on Taiwanese soil. It was the first fatal accident involving a Boeing 747-400, and the first and only Singapore Airlines crash to result in fatalities. It was also the second 747-400 to be written off, the other being B-165 at Kai Tak International Airport.

Aircraft and crew

The aircraft involved in the accident was a Boeing 747-412, registered as 9V-SPK with manufacturer's serial number 28023, powered by four Pratt & Whitney PW4056 engines. It was the 1099th Boeing 747 built and had been delivered to Singapore Airlines on 21 January 1997. It was one of 2 Singapore Airlines 747-412s (The other being 9V-SPL) that was painted in the special Tropical MegaTop Paint Scheme to promote new First and Business Class Items. It had its last maintenance check on 16 September 2000 and had no defects during the inspection and at the time of the accident.[2]

The captain of the flight was Foong Chee Kong (age 41). He was an experienced pilot with more than 11,200 recorded flight hours, of which more than 2,000 were in Boeing 747-400 aircraft. He was considered a competent and above-average pilot. The first officer, Latiff Cyrano (age 36), had more than 2,400 total flight hours. The third member of the crew was relief pilot Ng Kheng Leng (age 38) with approximately 5,500 total flight hours.[3]

Crash

At 15:00 UTC, 23:00 Taipei local time on 31 October 2000,[4] 9V-SPK left Bay B5[5] during heavy rain caused by Typhoon Xangsane. At 23:05:57, ground control cleared the aircraft to taxi to runway 05L via taxiway SS WC then NP.[5] At 23:15:22, the aircraft was cleared for takeoff on runway 05L.[5] Many carriers in Southeast and East Asia take off during inclement weather.[6]

After a six-second hold, at 23:16:36, the crew attempted takeoff on runway 05R – which had been closed for repairs – instead of the assigned runway 05L (which ran parallel to 05R). The captain correctly heard that he needed to take off at 05L, but he turned 215 metres (705 ft) too soon and lined up with 05R.[7] The airport was not equipped with ASDE, a ground radar which allows the air traffic controllers to monitor aircraft movements on the ground.[8]

3D Diagram of Chiang Kai-shek International Airport and the taxi path of Singapore Airlines Flight 006. The dotted green line indicates the correct path to Runway 05L. The yellow arrow indicates the path to Runway 05R. The red path indicates the fatal takeoff path.

Due to poor visibility in the heavy rain, the flight crew did not see that construction equipment, including two excavators, two vibrating rollers, one small bulldozer, and one air compressor,[4] had been parked on runway 05R. In addition, the runway contained concrete Jersey barriers and pits.[5] About 41 seconds later,[5] the aircraft collided with the machinery and broke into 3 major pieces. The fuselage was torn in two, and the engines and landing gear separated.[5] A crane tore the left wing from the aircraft, forcing the jet back onto the ground.[9] The nose struck a scoop loader,[10] with a following large fire, destroying the forward section of the fuselage and the wings.[5] 79 of 159 passengers and 4 of 20 crew members died in the accident. Many of the dead were seated in the middle section of the aircraft;[4] the fuel stored in the wings exploded and incinerated through that section.[11] At 23:17:36, the emergency bell sounded and 41 firefighting vehicles, 58 ambulances, 9 lighting units, and 436 personnel were dispatched to assist survivors and extinguish the fire. Chemical extinguishing agents rained on the aircraft at about three minutes after the impact.[5] At 23:35, roughly 10 minutes after the impact, the fire was brought under control.[5] At 23:40, non-airport ambulances and emergency vehicles from other agencies congregated at the north gate. At 00:00 Taipei time on 1 November, the fire was mostly extinguished and the front part of the aircraft was destroyed. Authorities established a temporary command centre.[5]

Casualties

Rescuers retrieving a casualty from the wreckage.

179 passengers and crew,[12] including 3 children and 3 infants, were on the aircraft at the time of the crash. Of the 179 occupants, 83 were killed, 39 suffered from serious injuries, 32 had minor injuries, while 25 were uninjured.[13] Amongst those who perished, there were 4 crew members. 81 passengers and crew died on impact immediately after the crash and 2 passengers died at a hospital.[11]

The passengers mostly consisted of Taiwanese and Americans.[14]

Nationalities of passengers and crew

Nationality[15][16] Passengers Crew Total
Total Killed Total Killed Total Killed
 Australia 1 0 0 0 1 0
 Cambodia 1 0 0 0 1 0
 Canada 1 0 0 0 1 0
 Germany 1 0 0 0 1 0
 India 11 10 0 0 11 10
 Indonesia 5 1 0 0 5 1
 Ireland 1 0 0 0 1 0
 Japan 1 1 0 0 1 1
 Malaysia 8 4 1 0 9 4
 Mexico 3 0 0 0 3 0
 Netherlands 1 1 0 0 1 1
 New Zealand 2 0 0 0 2 0
 Philippines 1 1 0 0 1 1
 Singapore 11 8 17 4 28 12
 Spain 1 0 0 0 1 0
 Republic of China (Taiwan) 55 26 2 0 57 26
 Thailand 2 0 0 0 2 0
 United Kingdom 4 2 0 0 4 2
 United States 47 24 0 0 47 24
 Vietnam 2 1 0 0 2 1
Total 159 79 20 4 179 83

Amongst the Singaporeans who perished were Elma Thwaites, mother of Singapore Turf Club horse-trainer Malcolm Thwaites, Dr. Sung Kah Kay (Chinese: 宋家骥; pinyin: Sòng Jiājì[17]), assistant professor of the National University of Singapore's Department of Computer Science,[18][19] Dr. Sung's wife, Jennifer Loo Tak Wing,[20] and Captain Lim Kim Hock, a Republic of Singapore Air Force pilot on his way to the Air National Guard to attend the Advanced Fighter Weapons Instructor Course.[21] In addition, four of the dead were Motorola employees.[17][22] Amongst perished passengers of other nationalities were the president and two vice-presidents of Buena Park, California-based Ameripec Inc.[23] Kevin Rice, a professor at UC Davis, survived the crash with more than 12% of his body burned,[24] as did John Diaz, a vice-president of MP3.com, who survived the crash with injuries not related to burns.[25] William Wang, who later founded Vizio, survived with only carbon monoxide poisoning.[26]

Origin of passengers and crew and types of injuries sustained

Diagram of 9V-SPK illustrating crew and passenger seat locations, lack of injury, severity of injuries, and deaths.

The captain, co-pilot and relief pilot originated from Singapore on another SQ 006 flight the day before the accident, rested at a hotel in Taipei, and boarded SQ 006 on October 31.[4] The crew consisted of 12 males and 8 females.[12] All three flight crew members survived the crash. The co-pilot received minor injuries. The pilot and relief pilot sustained no injuries.[4] Of the 17 cabin crew members, 4 died, 4 received serious injuries, and 9 received minor injuries.[4]

Of the passengers, 79 died, 35 received serious injuries, 22 received minor injuries, and 23 were uninjured.[4]

The aircraft had 5 first-class passengers, 28 business-class passengers (9 on lower deck and 19 on upper deck), and 126 economy-class passengers.[4][27] Of the first class passengers, 1 received a minor injury and 4 received no injuries. Of the business-class passengers, 14 (2 on lower deck, 12 on upper deck) died, 2 (1 on lower deck, 1 on upper deck) received serious injuries, 7 (2 on lower deck, 5 on upper deck) received minor injuries, and 8 (4 on lower deck, 4 on upper deck) were uninjured. Of the economy class passengers, 65 died, 33 received serious injuries, 14 received minor injuries, and 11 were uninjured.[4] The lower deck passengers who died were seated in rows 22 through 38.[4][28] 64 of 76 passengers in the forward economy section were killed by the explosion of the centre fuel tank, which resulted in intense fire.[29] In the upper deck of the business class section, 12 of 19 passengers and 1 of 2 flight attendants died due to smoke inhalation and fire;[29] 10 bodies, originating from the upper deck of business class, were found between the stairwell and the 2L exit on the main deck.[30] All passengers in the aft economy section survived.[29]

Of the passengers on the TPE-LAX leg, 77 flew from Singapore and 82 flew from Taipei. Of the passengers originating from Singapore, 37 died. Of the passengers originating from Taipei, 42 died. Of the three male passengers identified as infants, including two Indians originated from Singapore and one Taiwanese originated from Taipei, all three died.

The Department of Forensic Pathology Institute of Foreign Medicine, Ministry of Justice performed seven autopsies. One person died from impact injuries, and six people died from severe burns.[4] Many passengers on the flight sustained burns since jet fuel splashed onto the passengers.[31]

Lin Ming-liang, a 45-year-old Taiwanese passenger bearing burns to more than 86% of his body, died of his injuries at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (t: 長庚紀念醫院 Chánggēng Jìniàn Yīyuàn), Linkou, Taipei County (now New Taipei City) on Sunday 5 November 2000.[32] Lee Suet Yee,[33] a hospitalised Singaporean woman bearing burns to 95% of her body, died of her injuries in a Taiwanese hospital on 24 November 2000.[34][35]

Diaz did not receive burns; he received lung damage and "body shock," which resulted in compressed joints with soft tissue damage.[25] When Diaz appeared on The Oprah Winfrey Show, he used a walker.[36]

Investigation findings

The broken off tail section of the 9V-SPK.

An investigation into the accident was conducted by the Aviation Safety Council (ASC) of the Republic of China. The final report was issued by the ASC on 24 April 2002. In the report section "Findings Related to Probable Causes," which detailed factors that played a major role in the circumstances leading to the accident, it was stated that the flight crew did not review the taxi route, despite having all the relevant charts, and as a result did not know the aircraft had entered the wrong runway. Upon entering the wrong runway, the flight crew had neglected to check the para visual display (PVD) and the primary flight display (PFD), which would have indicated that the aircraft was lined up on the wrong runway. According to the ASC, these errors, coupled with the imminent arrival of the typhoon and the poor weather conditions, caused the flight crew to lose situational awareness and led them to attempt to take off from the wrong runway.[37]

Notification of details

Immediately after the accident occurred, James Boyd,[31] a Singapore Airlines spokesperson in Los Angeles, stated that no fatalities occurred in the crash;[11][38][39] the airline statement was later revised to state that fatalities occurred.

The airline initially stated that reports of the aircraft taking the wrong runway were untrue before the fact that the wrong runway was used was proven true.[40]

Khan Mahmood, an Atlanta man whose sister and parents died in SQ006, criticised the airline for taking too much time to notify relatives.[41]

A counselling centre opened at Los Angeles International Airport to deal with relatives of passengers.[42]

Relatives of victims provided blood samples to identify bodies.[43]

Contesting investigation findings

The report by ASC was deemed controversial by Singapore's Ministry of Transport,[44] Singapore Airlines and the International Federation of Air Line Pilots' Associations (IFALPA), among others.[citation needed]

Singaporean officials protested that the report did not present a full account of the incident and was incomplete, as responsibility for the accident appeared to have been placed mainly on the flight crew of SQ006, while other equally valid contributing factors had been played down. The team from Singapore that participated in the investigation felt that the lighting and signage at the airport did not measure up to international standards. Some critical lights were missing or not working. No barriers or markings were put up at the start of the closed runway, which would have alerted the flight crew that they were on the wrong runway. The Singapore team felt that these two factors were given less weight than was proper, as another flight crew had almost made the same mistake of using runway 05R to take off days before the accident.[citation needed]

Singapore Airlines also issued a statement after the release of the ASC report. In their statement, Singapore Airlines reiterated the points brought up by the Singapore investigators and added that air traffic control (ATC) did not follow their own procedure when they gave clearance for SQ006 to take off despite ATC's not being able to see the aircraft. Singapore Airlines also clarified that the para visual display (PVD) was meant to help the flight crew maintain the runway centerline in poor visibility, rather than to identify the runway in use.[45]

The statement by Kay Yong (T: 戎 凱, P: Rēng Kǎi), managing director of the Republic of China's Aviation Safety Council, implied that pilot error played a major role in the crash of the Boeing 747-400, which led to the deaths of 83 people. He stated that the airport should have placed markers stating that the runway was closed to takeoffs and landings.[46]

In general, airport runways that are closed are not normally lighted, to make it clear they are not in use. At Chiang Kai-Shek International Airport, a single switch controlled green lights on the common taxiway to both runways and on the centreline of runway 05R. Civil Aeronautics Administration Deputy Director Chang Kuo-cheng said runway 05L was fully lit on Tuesday night by white and yellow lights and only the green centreline lighting was illuminated on closed runway 05R. On the taxiway to the runways, four large signs point the way to runway 05L, he added, and he refused to state explicitly that pilot error was the primary cause of the mix-up.[citation needed]

Runway 05R was not blocked off by barriers because part of the strip was used by landing planes to taxi back to the airport terminal. The pilot confirmed twice with the control tower that he was on the correct runway; controllers did not know the plane had actually gone on to the wrong runway because the airport lacked ground radar and the plane was out of sight of the tower at the time of its takeoff attempt.[4]

Actions of flight crew and flight attendants

John Wiggans, a survivor of the crash, stated in a USA Today article that the staff were unable to help the passengers escape from the aircraft due to being frozen by fear and/or due to lack of competence in emergency procedures; Wiggans was seated in the upper deck business class area.[47] The Straits Times carried reports of flight attendants saving lives of passengers.[48][49] One story from the newspaper stated that Irene Ang Miau Lee (洪妙丽 Hóng Miàolì)[17] escaped the crash, ran back into the aircraft to attempt to save passengers, and died.[50]

The Australian reported that some flight attendants helped passengers and some flight attendants fled the aircraft before all passengers were accounted for.[47] Genevieve Jiang of The Electric New Paper stated that the pilots attempted to help the passengers.[51]

The Taiwanese report stated that the relief pilot (Crew Member 3, or CM-3) said in an interview that he was the first to leave the cockpit and the last to leave the aircraft[4] (Pg. 108/508). A passenger sitting in seat 17A stated that the Right Upper Deck Door flight attendant directed him to the main deck via the stairs. The flight attendant died[4] (Pg. 108/508).

Upper deck passengers and flight attendants stated that the Crew-In-Charge flight attendant (CIC) travelled upstairs after the first impact; the Crew-In-Charge flight attendant died[4] (Pg. 109/508).

The 3R and 3L flight attendants died; they were seated in the middle of the aircraft[4] (Pg. 110/508).

Aftermath

9V-SPL in tropical livery
9V-SPL, the sister aircraft of 9V-SPK, still wearing tropical livery in November 2000
9V-SPL in normal livery
After the crash, 9V-SPL's tropical livery was removed.

After the release of the ASC report, Republic of China public prosecutors called upon the flight crew of SQ006 to return to the ROC for questioning and the three-member crew complied. Rumours abounded at the time that the pilots might be detained in the ROC and charged with negligence. IFALPA had previously stated that it would advise its members of the difficulties of operating into the ROC if the flight crew of SQ006 were prosecuted. The prosecutors did not press charges and the flight crew were allowed to leave the ROC.[citation needed]

The accident aircraft 9V-SPK was painted in Singapore Airlines special promotion livery, a scheme called "Tropical", at the time of the accident. The special livery was intended to promote Singapore Airlines new first class and business class products. After the accident, 9V-SPK's sister aircraft, 9V-SPL, the only other aircraft painted with the promotional livery, was immediately removed from service and repainted with standard Singapore Airlines livery. Not until 2015 would another Singapore Airline's airframe be painted in any livery other than the standard for Singapore Airlines or Star Alliance.

Dozens of survivors and relatives of those killed filed lawsuits against the airline and ROC authorities.[52] Despite a Taiwanese High Prosecutor's decision to not prosecute the pilots for the first three years after the crash, Singapore Airlines subsequently fired the captain and first officer in 2002.[53]

The Association of Asian American Yale Alumni named the Tina E. Yeh Community Service Fellowship program after Tina Eugenia Yeh, an American who boarded SQ006 in Taipei and died.[54][55]

Repatriation of bodies

By 8 November 2000, several bodies were scheduled to be repatriated. Of the bodies:[56]

  • 19, including 14 Americans, 3 Taiwanese, and 2 Indians, were repatriated to the United States
  • 13, including 11 Singaporeans, 1 British, and 1 American, were repatriated to Singapore
  • 10, including 8 Indians and 2 Americans, were repatriated to India
  • 4 were repatriated to Malaysia[57]
  • 3 Americans were repatriated to Canada
  • 1 was repatriated to Indonesia[57]
  • 1 was repatriated to Japan[57]
  • 1 was repatriated to the Netherlands[57]
  • 1 was repatriated to the United Kingdom
  • 1 was repatriated to Vietnam[57]

The bodies of 14 Taiwanese passengers and the others remained in Taipei to be collected by relatives.[56]

Hospitalization and release of survivors

By 2 November 2000, 40 passengers and crew were hospitalised, of whom 11 were later released that night.[58] On 5 November 2000, 34 passengers and crew remained hospitalised. 64 were discharged from the hospitals.[59] Lin Ming-Liang, a Taiwanese passenger, died that day. On 8 November 2000, 24 passengers and crew remained hospitalised: 20 in the Republic of China (Taiwan), 3 in Singapore and 1 in the United States.[56] The Republic of Singapore Air Force deployed a specially configured KC-135R for the medical evacuation of critical Singaporean victims. 73 survivors, 40 who were not hospitalised and 33 who were discharged, had either returned home or continued with their travel.

Media

The film Thread That Binds includes an interview with Farzana Abdul Razak, a surviving flight attendant.[60]

The Mayday on Season 12 Episode 3 titled "Caution to the Wind" featured the process of the whole investigation.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Abbreviated forms of the flight name combine the airline's IATA airline code (SQ) or ICAO airline code (SIA) with the flight number.

References

  1. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 747-412 9V-SPK Taipei-Chiang Kai Shek Airport (TPE)". Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
  2. ^ "Boeing's workhorse." BBC. Tuesday 31 October 2000. Retrieved on 10 June 2009.
  3. ^ "Crashed on a partially closed runway during takeoff" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Aircraft Accident Report ASC-AAR-02-04-001 Archived 28 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine.: Crashed on a partially closed runway during takeoff Singapore Airlines Flight 006 Boeing 747-400, 9V-SPK CKS Airport, Taoyuan, Taiwan 31 October 2000," Aviation Safety Council, Taiwan, Republic of China
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Fate of SQ006." Channel News Asia. Retrieved on 10 June 2009.
  6. ^ Gittings, John. "100 feared dead in air disaster," The Guardian. Wednesday 1 November 2000. Retrieved on 10 June 2009.
  7. ^ "Last seconds of doomed airliner." BBC. Friday 3 November 2000. Retrieved on 10 June 2009.
  8. ^ "SQ Special Part One – Tragedy in Taipei." Channel News Asia. 4 November 2000. Retrieved on 10 June 2009.
  9. ^ Braid, Mary. "How to survive an air crash Archived 15 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine.." thisislondon.co.uk. 17 February 2003. Retrieved on 10 June 2009.
  10. ^ "Failure To Minimize Latent Hazards Cited In Taipei Tragedy Report." Air Safety Week. 6 May 2002. Retrieved on 10 June 2009.
  11. ^ a b c Roderick, Daffyd. "Fatal Error." TIME Asia. 13 November 2000. Volume 156, No. 19. Retrieved on 10 June 2009.
  12. ^ a b "Getforme Singapore SQ006 CRASH – COMPLETE LIST OF PASSENGERS & CREW". Getforme.com. Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
  13. ^ "Channelnewsasia.com : Fate of SQ006". Channelnewsasia.com. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
  14. ^ "SQ Special Part Two – Tragedy in Taipei". Channel News Asia. Archived from the original on 10 April 2009.
  15. ^ "PASSENGERS / CREW NAME LIST SQ 006 TAIPEI - LOS ANGELES 31 OCTOBER 2000." Singapore Airlines. November 2, 2000.
  16. ^ "Passengers and crew who died in the SQ006 crash." Channel News Asia. April 14, 2009.
  17. ^ a b c "17新加坡人生还". Lianhe Zaobao. 2 November 2000. Archived from the original on 5 March 2001. Retrieved 2 October 2007. ()
  18. ^ "Viet Nam". Catholic.org.tw. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
  19. ^ "SIA crash: Breakdown of passengers". Channel NewsAsia. 1 November 2000. Archived from the original on 9 May 2003. Retrieved 2 October 2007.
  20. ^ "Alumnus, wife die in last week's Singapore Airline crash in Taipei," Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 8 November 2000. Retrieved on 15 December 2009.
  21. ^ "Flight SQ 006 – CPT Lim Kim Hock". Ministry of Defence. 4 November 2000. Retrieved 2 October 2007.
  22. ^ "Obituary - Company Operations | Electronic News | Find Articles at BNET.com". Findarticles.com. 13 November 2000. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
  23. ^ "Executive summary | Banking & Finance > Financial Markets & Investing from AllBusiness.com". Allbusiness.com. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
  24. ^ "UC Davis professor hurt in air crash returns to the U.S.", Dateline UC Davis
  25. ^ a b "Passenger Sues Singapore Airlines", CBS News
  26. ^ Wang, William. "How I Did It: William Wang, CEO, Vizio." Inc.. 1 June 2007. Retrieved on 10 November 2010.
  27. ^ "CNN Transcript – Breaking News: Fatalities Reported in Singapore Airlines Crash – 31 October 2000". Transcripts.cnn.com. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
  28. ^ "SeatExpert Singapore Airlines Boeing 747-400 Version 1". Seatexpert.com. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
  29. ^ a b c "FindArticles.com - CBSi". findarticles.com.
  30. ^ "Failure To Minimize Latent Hazards Cited in Taipei Tragedy Report | Air Safety Week | Find Articles at BNET.com". Findarticles.com. 2002. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
  31. ^ a b Staff writer with agencies. "747 airliner crashes at CKS airport." Taipei Times. 1 November 2000. Page 1. Retrieved on 10 June 2009.
  32. ^ "SIA Crash Death Toll Rises to 82," People's Daily
  33. ^ "Getforme Singapore SINGAPORE AIRLINES' SQ006 CRASH AT CHIANG KAI SHEK AIRPORT 31 Oct 2000". Getforme.com. Archived from the original on 20 November 2008. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
  34. ^ "Industry Briefs." Airline Industry Information. 27 November 2000. Retrieved on 3 June 2009.
  35. ^ "Press Release 20." Singapore Airlines. 24 November 2000. Retrieved on 10 June 2009.
  36. ^ "THIS MONTH'S MISSION," O. Retrieved on 17 September 2008.
  37. ^ "Boeing 747-412 9V-SPK Accident Description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
  38. ^ "No Fatalities as LA-Bound Jet Crashes in Taiwan." Reuters at Yahoo! News. 31 October 2000. Retrieved on 5 October 2009.
  39. ^ Shameen, Assif. "After the Crash." AsiaWeek. 17 November 2000. Volume 26, Number 45.
  40. ^ "International effort to find crash cause." BBC. Thursday 2 November 2000. Retrieved on 5 October 2009.
  41. ^ "Crash plane was on the wrong runway." BBC. Friday 3 November 2000. Retrieved on 5 October 2009.
  42. ^ Willis, David. "Counselling offer at LA airport." BBC. Wednesday 1 November 2000. Retrieved on 5 October 2009.
  43. ^ Eckholm, Erik. "Runway Mistake Suspected in Taiwan Jet Crash, Officials Say." The New York Times. Friday 3 November 2000.
  44. ^ "Singapore MOT's Comments to the Final Report of the Investigation into The SQ006 Accident". Ministry of Transport. 26 April 2002. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  45. ^ "Investigation to Focus on Human Factors and Emergency Evacuation". CBS Business Network. Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS). 5 March 2001. Retrieved 25 August 2011.
  46. ^ Staff. "Airport criticised over Taiwan crash." BBC. Friday 23 February 2001. Retrieved 3 June 2009.
  47. ^ a b "The tragedy of flight SQ006". Singapore-window.org. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
  48. ^ "Jet crew did more harm than good, survivors say," USA Today
  49. ^ "Jet crew did more harm than good, survivors say," hosted at singapore-window.org
  50. ^ [sangkancil] SIA Crash: Irene Ang: Devoted to her dream job, till her la Archived 6 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  51. ^ Jiang, Genevieve. "SIA CRASH The pilots didn't run away. They tried to help others" (). The Electric New Paper. Friday 10 November 2000. Retrieved on 4 December 2014.
  52. ^ "45 survivors, families sue Singapore Airlines over Taiwan crash". Agence France-Presse. 31 October 2001. Archived from the original on 23 March 2003.
  53. ^ "SIA sacks SQ006 pilots". Taipei Times. 27 July 2002.
  54. ^ "In Loving Memory of Tina Eugenia Yeh." Association of Asian American Yale Alumni. Retrieved on 3 June 2009.
  55. ^ "Tina E. Yeh Community Service Fellowship." Association of Asian American Yale Alumni. Retrieved on 3 June 2009.
  56. ^ a b c "News Release 18." Singapore Airlines. 8 November 2000. Retrieved on5 October 2009.
  57. ^ a b c d e "Passengers and crew who died in the SQ006 crash". Channel News Asia. Archived from the original on 6 March 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2009.
  58. ^ "News Release 9," Singapore Airlines
  59. ^ "News Release 16," Singapore Airlines
  60. ^ "MEDIACORP | Our Business". Corporate.mediacorp.sg. Archived from the original on 6 February 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2008.

External links

Investigation reports
  • Investigation including the Report on Singapore Airlines Flight 006 (Archive) – Aviation Safety Council – The English version is the original version and the version of reference
    • (in Chinese)Investigation including the Report on Singapore Airlines Flight 006 (Archive)
Singapore Airlines press statements
  • Flight SQ006 Information
Court documents
  • Eva Van Schijndel's motion – Accesslaw.com
  • United States Court Document regarding settlement of SQ006 victims
Cockpit voice recorder data
  • Cockpit voice recorder and air traffic control transcript for Singapore Airlines Flight 006
News and media articles
  • Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network
  • Rushing to Die: The Crash of Singapore Airlines Flight 006
  • Passenger Sues Singapore Airlines, CBS News
  • List of deceased on SQ 006
  • "Goodbye." Channel News Asia. (Singaporeans who died on SQ006) (Archive)
    • Tributes (Archived)
  • Pictures of SQ006 (Archived)
  • CNN Interview with John Diaz, a survivor
  • CNN Transcript "Singapore Airlines Official Promises to Do All Possible for Flight 006 Victims, Their Families"
  • The Telegraph "A miracle so many survived"
  • The Telegraph "I can't believe they tried to take off"
  • Archive of Memorial Website for SQ 006
  • Crash page from the Washington Post
  • Interview of business class survivor John Diaz by Oprah Winfrey
  • How to Survive an Air Crash, citing Diaz
  • Tan, S Y. "Blame the Pilots, Blame the Doctors: Lessons from SQ 006" (Archive). Singapore Medical Journal. 2002, Vol 43 (46), p. 276.
  • Asia Buzz: Plain Facts, TIME
  • Singapore anger at Taiwan crash report, BBC
  • British Crash Survivor Speaks of 'Wall of Flame', ABC News
  • Nolan Law Group Website about SQ006 and the lawyers' opinions (archived)
  • "Seventy Killed in Singapore Airlines Plane Crash," People's Daily
  • How to Survive a Crash, TIME

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